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Cancer Informations Support ▼ SHOW

If you know the type of cancer you want to find out about,
this is the right section for you
. Each section has detailed information - from symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, to research and coping with cancer. Cancer is not a single static disease. It is a complex condition and more than 250 types have been identified so far.
Is Leukemia is curable?
DINOSAURS HAD CANCER TOO
Tumours have recently been discovered in dinosaur bones from around 70 million years ago, though the first description of cancer appeared a little later in 3000BC in Ancient Egypt. The writing noted, "There is no treatment"... continue reading
Article Source: www.roche.com
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Facts | Causes | Symptoms | Research
Cancer is when abnormal cells divide in an uncontrolled way.
Some cancers may eventually spread into other tissues.
There are more than 200 different types of cancer.
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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible Signs and Symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.
Cancer is when abnormal cells divide in an uncontrolled way. Some cancers may eventually spread into other tissues. There are more than 200 different types of cancer. 1 in 2 people in the UK will get cancer in their lifetime. Thanks to research many people are cured.
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Cancer starts when gene changes make one cell or a few cells begin to grow and multiply too much. This may cause a growth called a tumour.
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Some cancers can spread to other parts of the body. A primary tumour is the name for where a cancer starts. Cancer can sometimes spread to other parts of the body – this is called a secondary tumour or a metastasis. Cancer and its treatments can affect body systems, such as the blood circulation, lymphatic and immune systems, and the hormone system.
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Most cancers start due to gene changes that happen over a person’s lifetime. More rarely cancers start due to inherited faulty genes passed down in families.
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Malignant Mesothelioma, coronal CT scan.
Legend: the malignant mesothelioma is indicated by yellow arrows, the central pleural effusion is marked with a yellow star.
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Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human papillomavirus (HPV). These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person's parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States the average five-year survival rate is 66%.
In 2015 about 90.5 million people had cancer. About 14.1 million new cases occur a year (not including skin cancer other than melanoma). It caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7%) of human deaths. The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancers each year it would account for around 40% of cases. In children, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病 and brain tumors are most common except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. The financial costs of cancer were estimated at $1.16 trillion US dollars per year as of 2010.
Definitions Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely.
All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer. These characteristics are required to produce a malignant tumor. They include... read more
Article Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Surgery for CANCER
Cancer Information & Support
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Cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the body’s basic building blocks. The body constantly makes new cells to help us grow, replace worn-out tissue and heal injuries. Normally, cells multiply and die in an orderly way.
Sometimes cells don’t grow, divide and die in the usual way. This may cause blood or lymph fluid in the body to become abnormal, or form a lump called a tumour.
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The cancer that first develops in a tissue or organ is called the primary cancer. A malignant tumour is usually named after the organ or type of cell affected.
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A malignant tumour that has not spread to other parts of the body is called localised cancer. A tumour may invade deeper into surrounding tissue and can grow its own blood vessels (angiogenesis).
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If cancerous cells grow and form another tumour at a new site, it is called a secondary cancer or metastasis. A metastasis keeps the name of the original cancer. For example, bowel cancer that has spread to the liver is called metastatic bowel cancer, even though the person may be experiencing symptoms caused by problems in the liver...read more
If you have any of these symtoms
Article Source: www.cancercouncil.com.au

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It is important to understand that cancer is a genetic disease. For most types of cancer, the mutations that occur in the genes of the cancer cell are caused by exposures to environmental factors that are controllable. Inside almost every single cell in your body is a structure called the nucleus, which is the control centre of the cell. Inside the nucleus are 23 pairs of chromosomes. These are long strings of DNA.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid (pronounced dee-oxy-rye-bow-nu-clay-ik acid). Each string of DNA is shaped like a twisted ladder, which is called a double helix.
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You have more than two metres of DNA inside every cell, but it is very tightly coiled up so it all fits. DNA can be thought of as a code, containing all the instructions that tell a cell what to do. It is made up of genes. Humans have around 25,000 genes in total.
Your genes carry all the information that makes you, you. They tell your body to have blonde hair, or brown skin, or green eyes for example. And they tell your cells what sort of cell to be, how to behave, when to grow and reproduce, and when to die. Some genes control how much each cell grows and divides.
How faulty genes lead to cancer
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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Why some cancers come back?
Also check out Chest X-ray/胸部X光
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Cancer shows up on certain types of medical X-rays, making it an essential tool in detecting cancer, according to Cancer Research UK. X-ray radiation poses some health risks, but the potential diagnostic and preventive benefits typically outweigh the risks of the radiation.
Cancer Research UK states that mammography is the type of medical imaging test involving X-ray use that is utilized to detect breast cancer. Some cancers are detected through computed tomography. The average person has a one in three risk of developing cancer. While medical X-rays contribute a relatively minuscule amount to this risk, people should avoid unnecessary X-rays.

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Young patients are at higher risk of radiation-induced cancers than patients ages 17 to 69. Those over 70 are at very low risk of developing these cancers...read more
Article Source: www.reference.com

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What does bone cancer feel like?
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An animation/video teaching the basics of how cancer forms and spreads. Topics include: mutation, tumor suppressors, oncogenes, angiogenesis, apoptosis, metastasis and drug resistance.
Also check out Early Signs that Cancer is Growing in Your Body
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Signs of Cancer and Symptoms
Spot Cancer Early. Know the signs of cancer.
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Cancer Symptoms are changes in the body caused by the presence of cancer. They are usually caused by the effect of a cancer on the part of the body where it is growing, although the disease can cause more general symptoms such as weight loss or tiredness. There are more than 100 different types of cancer with a wide range of different signs and symptoms which can manifest in different ways.
Typical symptoms of cancer include:
★ The presence of an unusual lump in the body
★ Changes in a mole on the skin, such as size, color or shape thickness
★ A persistent cough or hoarseness
★ A change in bowel habits, such as unusual diarrhea or constipation
★ Difficulty in swallowing or continuing indigestion
★ Any abnormal bleeding, including bleeding from the vagina, or blood in urine or faeces
★ A persistent sore or ulcer
★ Difficulty passing urine
★ Unexplained weight loss
★ Unexplained pain
★ Unexplained tiredness or fatigue
★ Skin changes such as an unexplained rash or unusual texture
★ Unexplained night sweats
★ Abdominal pain

Find more information on Possible Symptoms of Cancer
Article Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Cancer Specialists may be able to monitor the spread of cancer cells more easily, thanks to research carried out in the labs of Professor Quentin Pankhurst of the Department of Physics & Astronomy at UCL. This pioneering work led to the spin-out company Endomagnetics Ltd, which was set up in 2007 to commercialise the technology. A detecting device, SentiMag, is now available for use in breast cancer patients, and the team is looking at how the technology can be used in patients with other forms of cancer.
One method of checking for cancer cells is to use a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Cancer spreads as cells break off the tumour and are carried by the lymph – the watery fluid that surrounds the cells in the body. Lymph nodes clean the fluid, and it is here that a second tumour will often form as the cells are trapped by the node nearest the primary tumour. Clinicians face the challenge of finding this – the sentinel node – and surgically removing it for testing to see what treatment is required.
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The iron oxide particles are injected into the tissue close to the tumour, and are carried in the lymph fluid to the nodes, where they accumulate. The resulting magnetic signal can be picked up using a hand-held detector, making it easy to determine which lymph nodes the tumour is draining into. The physician can then make an informed decision as to which lymph nodes might be affected, and which should be removed for testing.
SentiMag received CE marking last summer, and the company is now starting to look at other applications, as Pankhurst believes it should be relatively easy to translate the technology from one cancer to another. ‘We are working with a group in the Netherlands on colorectal cancer, and also looking closely at melanoma,’ he says. ‘We have been very active in engaging with clinicians, and the response to the technology has been enthusiastic, as it gives greater confidence that the right nodes are being checked...read more
Article Source: www.ucl.ac.uk

Also check out A Collection of Related Diseases

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Brain Tumor Surgery - Brain Tumor Surgery Risks. Make the Most of the Most Effective Therapy.
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In Many Cases Cancer Surgery to debulk or Remove the Cancerous Tumor is the First and Often, the Most Effective Therapy
As a newly diagnosed cancer patient we can research the risks and benefits of chemo or radiation before surgery compared to chemo or radiation after surgery. Or you might not want to undergo any chemo or radiation before or after.
But most everyone will agree that surgery to remove the cancer is the most important therapy, that therapy that is the biggest bang for the buck. By bang for the buck, I mean that surgery removed the most cancer cells, by far.
The key to your cancer surgery is Pre-habilitation. Preparing for your surgery through nutrition, exercise, supplementation, etc. Give your body it’s best chance.
Be it a lumpectomy for breast cancer stage 0 to cancer diagnosis of stage 4 for surgeries that are major shocks to the body, prehabilitation and enhanced recovery protocols have been shown to reduce infection rates, reducing hospital stays, reduce costs- in short, improve outcomes.
For more information on both conventional and non-conventional therapies for cancer...Find out more
Article Source: peoplebeatingcancer.org

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More people are surviving CANCER than ever before. 7 out of 10 children are now cured of cancer! Childhood cancers respond well to chemotherapy as they are usually fast growing cancers, and most forms of chemotherapy affect quickly growing cells. Children's bodies are also largely better able to recover from higher doses of treatment than adults' bodies.
Two out of three people are now living at least five years after their cancer has been diagnosed. Within the last decade alone, the response rates to treatments across all cancers have nearly doubled.
Article Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Patients who stay optimistic appear to have a better chance of surviving cancer. Dr Chia Yin Nin with KK Women's And Children's Hospital (KKH) shares her experiences.
As a medical doctor, I used to be sceptical about emotions having an impact on health. My views changed after I started practising gynaecological oncology in 2004.
I saw numerous patients recover from cancer, only to suffer a relapse when confronted with a major life crisis. I wondered if there was, indeed, a link between emotions and the chances of surviving cancer.
There are no scientific studies or randomised controlled trials that objectively measure the impact of happiness on health. Sure, there are some studies done by psychologists, but happiness, or any emotion for that matter, is very difficult to measure objectively.
What I know is anecdotal in nature, derived from my interaction with patients. In my experience, optimists tend to experience better health than pessimists.​​​
Jane* was a patient of mine in her mid-30s with two young children. She was diagnosed with stage II cervical cancer, but the disease had already been in remission for two years and she was doing well.
Then, one day, her husband confessed that he had an affair with someone close to the family. It was a traumatic time for Jane. I remembered her knocking on my door every day, pouring her heart out to me. She cried throughout our sessions and counted on me for emotional support. Soon thereafter, she suffered a relapse. Although Jane eventually reconciled with her husband months later, we were not able to save her and she passed away one year later.
Another patient of mine, Charise*, is a bright young professional in her 30s who was diagnosed with stage III ovarian cancer. She had a stressful job. I advised her to take it easy, but it was difficult for her to do so when she went back to her job after treatment. Two years later, the cancer came back. I told her it was time to take a second look at her priorities in life and perhaps take it easy with regard to work. I also told her to accept and “let go” of her illness.
She decided to quit her job and took some time to focus on her cancer treatment. We managed again to send her cancer into remission with more surgery and chemotherapy. A year on, she decided to take up a “less stressful” job. But, unfortunately, her tumour marker started to rise again, suggesting yet another relapse. This time round, I did not prescribe any treatment but simply advised her to take a holiday. She toured France for a whole month, visited friends, drank lots of French wine and enjoyed herself. When she came back to see me, she not only looked rejuvenated, but her tumour marker was also normal. It was remarkable...read more
Article Source: www.healthxchange.sg

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EATING a handful of walnuts a day can cut your risk of bowel cancer, heart disease and dementia, researchers claim.
A number of studies presented at a conference in the US help shine fresh light on the super-food’s health boosting properties.
Researchers at Ewha Womans University in Korea found that walnut extract reduces the size of colon tumours and slows the spread of cancer stem cells.
They called for further studies into the role of walnut consumption in bowel cancer therapies.
Another recent study at Louisiana State University showed that adding walnuts to the diet of animals improved their gut bacteria, vital in maintaining a healthy bowel.
At Tufts University, Massachusetts, tests on rats found that adding walnuts to their diet improved mental ability.
The researchers said eating walnuts may help protect the ageing brain.
And a study of postmenopausal women with high cholesterol by the University of California, Davis, found those who ate walnuts saw improved function in small blood vessels, where clots can cause a heart attack or stroke.
Scientists say the results presented at Experimental Biology 2015 in Boston pave the way for research aimed at understanding walnuts’ role in disease prevention and management.
Among the ingredients which may be behind these health benefits is a fatty acid called ALA.
Dennis Balint, chief executive of the California Walnut Commission, said: “These findings help advance the understanding of the many advantages of eating walnuts as part of a healthy diet, and add to the more than 159 published papers over 20 years that have shown how walnuts affect heart health, diabetes, cancer, cognition, fertility and weight management.”
Find out further information
Article Source: www.express.co.uk

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity and drinking alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. There are many superfoods rich in antioxidants and phytochemicals that offer anti-cancer benefits. For instance some berries can cause cancer cells to self-destruct, walnuts have the potential to help fight tumors and tomatoes can destroy cancer-causing free radicals in the body.
Here are the list of top 10 cancer-fighting superfoods:
Garlic is one of the most powerful anti-cancer food. It has immune enhancing allium compounds that appear to increase the activity of immune cells that fight cancer and indirectly help break down cancer causing substances. These substances also help block carcinogens from entering cells and slow tumor development. Diallyl sulfide, a component of garlic oil, has also been shown to render carcinogens in the liver inactive.
Mushrooms are one of the most powerful functional foods for preventing and treating cancer. Shiitake mushroom is believed to be effective in fighting the development and progression of cancer by boosting the body’s immune system. Besides shiitake, other varieties of mushroom which boost anti-cancer benefits include Maitake, Reishi and Phellinus Linteus.
Broccoli contain a chemical component called indole-3-carbinol that can combat breast cancer by converting a cancer-promoting estrogen into a more protective variety. It also has the phytochemical sulforaphane that is believed to aid in preventing some types of cancer, like colon and rectal cancer.
Grapes are rich in polyphenolic phytochemical compound resveratrol. , which inhibits the enzymes that can stimulate cancer-cell growth and suppress immune response. They also contain ellagic acid, a compound that blocks enzymes that are necessary for cancer cells - this appears to help slow the growth of tumors.
Green Tea contain certain antioxidants known as polyphenols which appear to prevent cancer cells from dividing. According to a report in the July 2001 issue of the Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, these polyphenols that are abundant in green tea may protect against various types of cancer.
Lycopene, a flavonoid antioxidant, is a unique phytochemical compound found in the tomatoes. Studies shows that lycopene protects the skin from ultra-violet rays and thus offers some defence against skin cancer. It also contains very good levels of vitamin A, and flavonoid anti-oxidants such as beta carotenes, Zea-xanthin and lutein. These antioxidants are scientifically found to be protective against cancers, including colon, prostate, breast, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic tumors.
Turmeric is an underground root that is believed to have medicinal properties because it inhibits production of the inflammation related enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 , levels of which are abnormally high in certain inflammatory diseases and cancers, especially bowel and colon cancer.
Spinach is one of the wonderful green-leafy vegetable often recognized as one of the functional foods for its wholesome nutritional, antioxidants and anti-cancer composition. It is an excellent source of the iron which is an integral part of hemoglobin, which transports oxygen from the lungs to all body cells. When cells are well oxygenated there can be no cancer.
Blueberries are among the highest anti-oxidant value fruits. Their antioxidant value largely comes from poly-phenolic anthocyanidin compounds such as chlorogenic acid, tannins, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. Additionally they compose of other flavonoid anti-oxidants such as beta carotene, lutein and zea-xanthin.
It is one of the most popular anti-cancer superfood. A new study has found that a substance in pomegranates can slow or even stop the growth of breast cancer tumors. The study, just published in Cancer Prevention Research, found 10 phytochemicals in pomegranates that seem to inhibit the growth of estrogen-responsive breast tumors.
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Facts | Causes | Symptoms | Research
Anal cancer is a rare cancer that starts in the anus. This is the opening at the very end of the large bowel.
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Anal cancer starts in the anus. Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. Being infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk of developing anal cancer. Signs of anal cancer include bleeding from the anus or rectum or a lump near the anus.
Anal cancer occurs when skin cells grow out of control in the anus, the area just a few inches inside the butt. The causes and location of anal cancer should not be confused with colon or rectal cancer which are different.
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Also understand What Is Cancer?
Article Source: www.cancer.org
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The anus is the opening where the gastrointestinal tract ends and exits the body. The anus starts at the bottom of the rectum, the last portion of the colon (large intestine). The anorectal line separates the anus from the rectum.
Anus (Human Anatomy) Picture, Definition, Conditions, & More...
As food is digested, it passes from the stomach to the small intestine. It then travels from the small intestine into the main part of the large intestine (called the colon). The colon absorbs water and salt from the digested food. The waste matter that is left after going through the colon is known as feces or stool. Feces are stored in the lower part of the large intestine, called the rectum, which is the final 6 inches of the digestive system. From there, they pass out of the body through the anus as a bowel movement.
The anus is the opening at the lower end of the intestines.
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The anal opening is connected to the rectum by the anal canal. The anal canal is about an inch and a half long. It goes from the rectum to the anal verge (where the canal meets the outside skin at the anus).
The inner lining of the anal canal is the mucosa. Most anal cancers start from cells in the mucosa.
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Glands and ducts (tubes leading from the glands) are found under the mucosa. The glands make mucus, which acts as a lubricating fluid. Anal cancers that start from cells in the glands are called Adenocarcinomas.
The anal canal changes as it goes from the rectum to the anal verge:
★ Cells above the anal canal (in the rectum) and in the part of the anal canal close to the Rectum are shaped like tiny columns.
★ Most cells near the middle of the anal canal are shaped like cubes and are called transitional cells. This area is called the transitional zone.
★ About midway down the anal canal is the dentate line, which is where most of the anal glands empty into the anus.
★ Below the dentate line are flat (squamous) cells.
★ At the anal verge, the squamous cells of the lower anal canal merge with the skin just outside the anus. This skin around the anal verge (called the perianal skin or the anal margin) is also made up of squamous cells, but it also contains sweat glands and hair follicles, which are not found in the lining of the lower anal canal.
Anal cancers are often divided into 2 groups, which are sometimes treated differently:
★ Cancers of the anal canal (above the anal verge)
★ Cancers of the anal margin (below the anal verge)
Sometimes anal cancers extend from one area into the other, so it’s hard to know exactly where they started.
The anal canal is surrounded by a sphincter, which is a circular muscle that keeps feces from coming out until it relaxes during a bowel movement.
Also understand : What Is Cancer?
Article Source: www.cancer.org
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Many types of tumors can develop in the anus. Not all of these tumors are cancers – some are benign (non-cancerous). Some growths start off as benign but over time can develop into cancer. These are called pre-cancerous conditions. This section discusses all of these types of abnormal growths.
Benign (non-cancerous) anal tumors
Polyps: Polyps are small, bumpy, or mushroom-like growths that develop in the mucosa or just under it. There are several kinds.
Cancer of the anal canal.
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Inflammatory polyps start because of inflammation from injury or infection.
Lymphoid polyps are caused by an overgrowth of lymph tissue (which is part of the immune system). Small nodules of lymph tissue are normally present under the anal inner lining.
Hypertrophied anal papillae are benign growths of connective tissue that are covered by squamous cells. They are simply enlarged normal papillae, which are small folds of mucosa found at the dentate line. Hypertrophied anal papillae are also called Fibroepithelial polyps.
Skin tags: Skin tags are benign growths of connective tissue that are covered by squamous cells. Skin tags are often mistaken for hemorrhoids (swollen veins inside the anus or rectum), but they are not truly hemorrhoids.
Anal warts: Anal warts (also called condylomas) are growths that occur just outside the anus and in the lower anal canal below the dentate line. Occasionally they can be found just above the dentate line. They are caused by infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). Anal warts are unlikely to develop into anal cancer, but people who have had anal warts are more likely to get anal cancer (see “Potentially pre-cancerous anal conditions” below and the section “What are the risk factors for anal cancer?”).
Other benign tumors: In rare cases, benign tumors can grow in other tissues of the anus. These include:
Adnexal tumors: Usually benign growths that start in hair follicles or sweat glands of the skin just outside of the anus. These tumors stay in the perianal skin area and do not grow into the anal region.
Leiomyomas: Benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells.
Granular cell tumors: Tumors that develop from nerve cells and are composed of cells that contain lots of tiny spots (granules).
Hemangiomas: Tumors that start in the cells lining blood vessels.
Lipomas: Benign tumors that start from fat cells.
Schwannomas: Tumors that develop from cells that cover nerves.
Potentially pre-cancerous anal conditions
Some changes in the anal mucosa are harmless in their early stages but might later develop into a cancer. A common term for these potentially pre-cancerous conditions is dysplasia. Some warts, for example, contain areas of dysplasia that can develop into cancer.
Dysplasia occurring in the anus is also known as anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and as anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Depending on how the cells look, AIN (or anal SIL) can be divided into 2 groups:
Low-grade AIN (sometimes called AIN1 or low-grade anal SIL): The cells in low-grade AIN resemble normal cells in many ways. Low-grade AIN often goes away without treatment. It has a low chance of turning into cancer.
High-grade AIN (sometimes called AIN2 or AIN3, or high-grade anal SIL): The cells in high-grade AIN look much more abnormal. High-grade AIN is less likely to go away without treatment and could eventually become cancer, so it needs to be watched closely. Some cases of high-grade AIN need to be treated.
Carcinoma in situ/原位癌
Sometimes abnormal cells on the inner surface layer of the anus look like cancer cells but have not grown into any of the deeper layers. This condition is known as carcinoma in situ, (pronounced in SY-too), or CIS. Another name for this condition is Bowen disease. Some doctors view this as the earliest form of anal cancer and others consider it the most advanced type of AIN, which is considered a pre-cancer but not a true cancer.
Also understand : What Is Carcinoma Situ?
Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells. While they are a form of neoplasm there is disagreement over whether CIS should be classified as cancer. This controversy also depends on the exact CIS in question (i.e. cervical, skin, breast).
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Brain tumor definition, types of brain tumors, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, statistics, and prevention. This is a general overview!
Cancerous (malignant) brain tumours – are high grade (grade three or four) and either start in the brain (primary tumours) or spread into the brain from elsewhere (secondary tumours); they're more likely to grow back after treatment.
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A Brain Tumor, occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes. The headache is classically worse in the morning and goes away with vomiting. More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking, and with sensation. As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur.
The main areas of the brain and limbic system.
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The cause of most brain tumors is unknown. Uncommon risk factors include inherited neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein–Barr virus, and ionizing radiation. The evidence for mobile phones is not clear. The most common types of primary tumors in adults are meningiomas (usually benign), and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas. In children, the most common type is a malignant medulloblastoma. Diagnosis is usually by medical examination along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. This is then often confirmed by a biopsy. Based on the findings, the tumors are divided into different grades of severity.
Brain cancer regions.
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Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.[1] Anticonvulsant medication may be needed if seizures occur...Find out further information
Article Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Understanding of the

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The brain is composed of three parts: the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. The cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. ... The cerebellum is located under the cerebrum. Its function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
Overview
The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brainstem acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord.
The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body. It also determines how we respond to stressful situations (such as taking a test, losing a job, or suffering an illness) by regulating our heart and breathing rate.
Nervous system
The nervous system is divided into central and peripheral systems. The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of spinal nerves that branch from the spinal cord and cranial nerves that branch from the brain. The PNS includes the autonomic nervous system, which controls vital functions such as breathing, digestion, heart rate, and secretion of hormones.
Skull
The purpose of the bony skull is to protect the brain from injury. The skull is formed from 8 bones that fuse together along suture lines. These bones include the frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), sphenoid, occipital and ethmoid (Fig. 1). The face is formed from 14 paired bones including the maxilla, zygoma, nasal, palatine, lacrimal, inferior nasal conchae, mandible, and vomer.
Figure 1 Eight bones form the skull and fourteen bones form the face.
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Inside the skull are three distinct areas: anterior fossa, middle fossa, and posterior fossa (Fig. 2). Doctors sometimes refer to a tumor’s location by these terms, e.g., middle fossa meningioma.
Figure 2 The inside of the skull is divided into three areas called the anterior, middle, and posterior fossae.
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Similar to cables coming out the back of a computer, all the arteries, veins and nerves exit the base of the skull through holes, called foramina. The big hole in the middle (foramen magnum) is where the spinal cord exits.
Brain
The brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem
(Fig. 3).
Figure 3 The brain is composed of three parts: the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. The cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.
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★ The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
★ The cerebellum is located under the cerebrum. Its function is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
★ The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla. It acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing. Ten of the twelve cranial nerves originate in the brainstem.
The surface of the cerebrum has a folded appearance called the cortex. The cortex contains about 70% of the 100 billion nerve cells. The nerve cell bodies color the cortex grey-brown giving it its name – gray matter (Fig. 4). Beneath the cortex are long connecting fibers between neurons, called axons, which make up the white matter.
Figure 4 The surface of the cerebrum is called the cortex. The cortex contains neurons (grey matter), which are interconnected to other brain areas by axons (white matter). The cortex has a folded appearance. A fold is called a gyrus and the groove between is a sulcus.
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The folding of the cortex increases the brain’s surface area allowing more neurons to fit inside the skull and enabling higher functions. Each fold is called a gyrus, and each groove between folds is called a sulcus. There are names for the folds and grooves that help define specific brain regions.
Right brain – left brain
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The right and left hemispheres of the brain are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that delivers messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a brain tumor is located on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
Lobes of the brain
The cerebral hemispheres have distinct fissures, which divide the brain into lobes. Each hemisphere has 4 lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital (Fig 3). Each lobe may be divided, once again, into areas that serve very specific functions. It’s important to understand that each lobe of the brain does not function alone. There are very complex relationships between the lobes of the brain and between the right and left hemispheres.
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Frontal lobe
★ Personality, behavior, emotions
★ Judgment, planning, problem solving
★ Speech: speaking and writing (Broca’s area)
★ Body movement (motor strip)
★ Intelligence, concentration, self awareness
Parietal lobe
★ Interprets language, words
★ Sense of touch, pain, temperature (sensory strip)
★ Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory
★ Spatial and visual perception
Occipital lobe
★ Interprets vision (color, light, movement)
Temporal lobe
★ Understanding language (Wernicke’s area)
★ Memory
★ Hearing
★ Sequencing and organization
Messages within the brain are carried along pathways. Messages can travel from one gyrus to another, from one lobe to another, from one side of the brain to the other, and to structures found deep in the brain (e.g. thalamus, hypothalamus).
Deep structures
Hypothalamus - is located in the floor of the third ventricle and is the master control of the autonomic system. It plays a role in controlling behaviors such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and sexual response. It also regulates body temperature, blood pressure, emotions, and secretion of hormones.
Pituitary gland - lies in a small pocket of bone at the skull base called the sella turcica. The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus of the brain by the pituitary stalk. Known as the “master gland,” it controls other endocrine glands in the body. It secretes hormones that control sexual development, promote bone and muscle growth, respond to stress, and fight disease.
Pineal gland - is located behind the third ventricle. It helps regulate the body’s internal clock and circadian rhythms by secreting melatonin. It has some role in sexual development.
Thalamus - serves as a relay station for almost all information that comes and goes to the cortex (Fig. 5). It plays a role in pain sensation, attention, alertness and memory.
Figure 5 Coronal cross-section showing the basal ganglia.
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Basal ganglia - includes the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus. These nuclei work with the cerebellum to coordinate fine motions, such as fingertip movements.
Limbic system - is the center of our emotions, learning, and memory. Included in this system are the cingulate gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala (emotional reactions) and hippocampus (memory).
Cranial nerves
The brain communicates with the body through the spinal cord and twelve pairs of cranial nerves (Fig. 6). Ten of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves that control hearing, eye movement, facial sensations, taste, swallowing and movement of the face, neck, shoulder and tongue muscles originate in the brainstem. The cranial nerves for smell and vision originate in the cerebrum.
Illustrated diagram of the various cranial nerves
Figure 6 The Roman numeral, name, and main function of the twelve cranial nerves.
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Meninges
The brain and spinal cord are covered and protected by three layers of tissue called meninges. From the outermost layer inward they are: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
The dura mater is a strong, thick membrane that closely lines the inside of the skull; its two layers, the periosteal and meningeal dura, are fused and separate only to form venous sinuses. The dura creates little folds or compartments. There are two special dural folds, the falx and the tentorium. The falx separates the right and left hemispheres of the brain and the tentorium separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
The arachnoid mater is a thin, web-like membrane that covers the entire brain. The arachnoid is made of elastic tissue. The space between the dura and arachnoid membranes is called the subdural space.
The pia mater hugs the surface of the brain following its folds and grooves. The pia mater has many blood vessels that reach deep into the brain. The space between the arachnoid and pia is called the subarachnoid space. It is here where the cerebrospinal fluid bathes and cushions the brain.
Ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid
The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles (Fig. 7). Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.
Figure 7 CSF is produced inside the ventricles deep within the brain. CSF fluid circulates inside the brain and spinal cord and then outside to the subarachnoid space. Common sites of obstruction: 1) foramen of Monro, 2) aqueduct of Sylvius, and 3) obex.
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There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled (or absorbed) by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.
A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles (hydrocephalus) or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord (syringomyelia).
Blood supply
Blood is carried to the brain by two paired arteries, the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries (Fig. 8). The internal carotid arteries supply most of the cerebrum.
Figure 8 The common carotid artery courses up the neck and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries. The brain’s anterior circulation is fed by the internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the posterior circulation is fed by the vertebral arteries (VA). The two systems connect at the Circle of Willis (green circle).
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The vertebral arteries supply the cerebellum, brainstem, and the underside of the cerebrum. After passing through the skull, the right and left vertebral arteries join together to form the basilar artery. The basilar artery and the internal carotid arteries “communicate” with each other at the base of the brain called the Circle of Willis (Fig. 9). The communication between the internal carotid and vertebral-basilar systems is an important safety feature of the brain. If one of the major vessels becomes blocked, it is possible for collateral blood flow to come across the Circle of Willis and prevent brain damage.
Figure 9 Top view of the Circle of Willis. The internal carotid and vertebral-basilar systems are joined by the anterior communicating and posterior communicating arteries.
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The venous circulation of the brain is very different from that of the rest of the body. Usually arteries and veins run together as they supply and drain specific areas of the body. So one would think there would be a pair of vertebral veins and internal carotid veins. However, this is not the case in the brain. The major vein collectors are integrated into the dura to form venous sinuses (Fig. 10) - not to be confused with the air sinuses in the face and nasal region. The venous sinuses collect the blood from the brain and pass it to the internal jugular veins. The superior and inferior sagittal sinuses drain the cerebrum, the cavernous sinuses drains the anterior skull base. All sinuses eventually drain to the sigmoid sinuses, which exit the skull and form the jugular veins. These two jugular veins are essentially the only drainage of the brain.
Figure 10 Three quarter view of the dural covering of the brain depicts the two major dural folds, the falx and tentorium along with the venous sinuses.
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Language
In general, the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language and speech and is called the "dominant" hemisphere. The right hemisphere plays a large part in interpreting visual information and spatial processing. In about one third of individuals who are left-handed, speech function may be located on the right side of the brain. Left-handed individuals may need special testing to determine if their speech center is on the left or right side prior to any surgery in that area.
Aphasia is a disturbance of language affecting production, comprehension, reading or writing, due to brain injury – most commonly from stroke or trauma. The type of aphasia depends on the brain area affected.
Broca’s area lies in the left frontal lobe (Fig 3). If this area is damaged, one may have difficulty moving the tongue or facial muscles to produce the sounds of speech. The individual can still read and understand spoken language but has difficulty in speaking and writing (i.e. forming letters and words, doesn't write within lines) – called Broca's aphasia.
Wernicke's area lies in the left temporal lobe (Fig 3). Damage to this area causes Wernicke's aphasia. The individual may speak in long sentences that have no meaning, add unnecessary words, and even create new words. They can make speech sounds, however they have difficulty understanding speech and are therefore unaware of their mistakes.
Memory
Memory is a complex process that includes three phases: encoding (deciding what information is important), storing, and recalling. Different areas of the brain are involved in memory depending on the type of memory.
Short-term memory also called working memory, occurs in the prefrontal cortex. It stores information for about one minute and its capacity is limited to about 7 items. For example, it enables you to dial a phone number someone just told you. It also intervenes during reading, to memorize the sentence you have just read, so that the next one makes sense.
Long-term memory is processed in the hippocampus of the temporal lobe and is activated when you want to memorize something for a longer time. This memory has unlimited content and duration capacity. It contains personal memories as well as facts and figures.
Skill memory is processed in the cerebellum, which relays information to the basal ganglia. It stores automatic learned memories like tying a shoe, playing an instrument, or riding a bike.
Cells of the brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: nerve cells (neurons) and glia cells.
Nerve cells
There are many sizes and shapes of neurons, but all consist of a cell body, dendrites and an axon. The neuron conveys information through electrical and chemical signals. Try to picture electrical wiring in your home. An electrical circuit is made up of numerous wires connected in such a way that when a light switch is turned on, a light bulb will beam. A neuron that is excited will transmit its energy to neurons within its vicinity.
Neurons transmit their energy, or “talk”, to each other across a tiny gap called a synapse (Fig. 11). A neuron has many arms called dendrites, which act like antennae picking up messages from other nerve cells. These messages are passed to the cell body, which determines if the message should be passed along. Important messages are passed to the end of the axon where sacs containing neurotransmitters open into the synapse. The neurotransmitter molecules cross the synapse and fit into special receptors on the receiving nerve cell, which stimulates that cell to pass on the message.
Figure 11 Nerve cells consist of a cell body, dendrites and axon. Neurons communicate with each other by exchanging neurotransmitters across a tiny gap called a synapse.
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Glia cells
Glia (Greek word meaning glue) are the cells of the brain that provide neurons with nourishment, protection, and structural support. There are about 10 to 50 times more glia than nerve cells and are the most common type of cells involved in brain tumors.
★ Astroglia or astrocytes transport nutrients to neurons, hold neurons in place, digest parts of dead neurons, and regulate the blood brain barrier.
★ Oligodendroglia cells provide insulation (myelin) to neurons.
★ Ependymal cells line the ventricles and secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
★ Microglia digest dead neurons and pathogens.
Article Source: www.mayfieldclinic.com

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Overview. A brain tumor is a collection of abnormal cells in the brain. Brain tumors can be either malignant (cancerous) or benign (unlikely to spread). When cancer cells from other parts of your body cause a tumor in your brain, it is called a secondary or metastatic brain tumor.
Also check out Is cancer genetic/癌症是遗传吗?
We don't know what causes most brain cancers. But there are some factors that may increase your risk of developing it.

Go to our information on risks and causes of brain tumours
Symptoms
Find out about possible symptoms of a brain tumour and when to see your doctor.
Go to our information on symptoms of a brain tumour
Grades
Find out about the grades and the difference between benign and malignant brain tumours.
Go to our information about the grades and the difference between benign and malignant brain tumours.
Types of brain tumours
There are many different types of brain tumours. They are usually named after the type of cell they develop from, or the area of the brain they started to grow in.
Go to our information on many different types of brain tumours
Survival
Survival depends on many different factors. It depends on your individual condition, type of cancer, treatment and level of fitness. So no one can tell you exactly how long you will live.
Go to our information about brain tumour survival.
Getting diagnosed
You usually start by seeing your GP. They will ask you about your general health and symptoms and will also examine you. Your doctor will then decide whether to do tests or refer you to a specialist. Some people have symptoms that come on quite suddenly such as a severe headache and drowsiness or a fit (seizure) and need to go straight to an Accident and Emergency (A&E) department.
Go to our information about the tests you might have to diagnose brain and spinal cord tumours.
Treatment
Find out about the different types of treatment for for brain and spinal cord tumours.
Go to our information about the different types of treatment for for brain and spinal cord tumours.
Research and clinical trials
All treatments must be fully researched before they can be adopted as standard treatment for everyone. This is so that we can be sure they work better than the treatments we already use, and so we know that they are safe.
Go to our information on research and clinical trials
Living with brain tumours
Find out what you can do, who can help and about how to cope with a diagnosis of brain and spinal cord tumours.
Go to our information on living with brain tumours
Also check out
The Normal Unfixed Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain Dissections
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org
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Generally, brain tumours can be cancerous (malignant) or non cancerous (benign).
Around half of all brain tumours, or tumours in another part of the central nervous system, are malignant. The other half are benign tumours, or tumours where the diagnosis is not known.
When the diagnosis is not known it is usually because the tumour is in a part of the brain that is too difficult to take a sample (biopsy) from.

Who gets it
Having a brain tumour is relatively rare. Brain tumours that are cancerous (malignant) are more common in males than females. Non cancerous brain tumours, and tumours where the diagnosis is unknown, are more common in females.
Almost half (46%) of brain tumours in the UK each year are diagnosed in people aged 65 and over. This includes tumours in other parts of the central nervous system and tumours anywhere else inside the bones of the head.
Find out more about the causes and risks of brain tumours
The brain
Your brain controls your body by sending electrical messages along nerve fibres. The fibres run out of the brain and join together to make your spinal cord. Together your brain and spinal cord make your central nervous system (CNS).
The main areas of the brain include:
★ The cerebrum (forebrain)
★ The brain stem
★ The cerebellum
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The cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It's also called the forebrain. It's divided into two halves, the right and left central hemispheres.
They control:
★ Movement
★ Thinking
★ Memory
★ Emotions
★ Senses
★ Speech
The nerves that come from the right side of your brain control the left side of your body. And the nerves that control the left side of your brain control the right side of your body.
Each half (central hemisphere) is divided into 4 areas.
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Frontal lobe
The frontal lobe is important for:
★ Speaking
★ Planning
★ Problem solving
★ Starting some movements
★ Processing sensations
★ Part of your personality and characer
Temporal lobe
The temporal lobe is where you process sounds and where memories are stored.
Parietal lobe
The patietal lobe recognises objects in the world and stores that knowledge. It's where you recieve and process:
★ Touch
★ Pressure
★ Pain
Occipitial lobe
This lobe processes what you can see.
The brain stem
This controls body functions we don't usually think about like:
★ Breathing
★ Swallowing
★ Heartbeat and blood pressure
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The cerebellum
The cerebellum or hindbrain controls balance and posture. it is also involved with the timing and coordination of skilled movement.
Making hormones
Your brain makes hormones, which are important for your body to function.
Pituitary gland hormones. These affect:
★ Growth
★ The speed of body processes (your metabolism)
★ Periods and egg production
★ Sperm production
Pineal gland hormone
The pineal gland makes melatonin, which controls your sleep patterns.
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Fluid around the brain
The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Ventricles are spaces inside the brain filled with CSF. They connect with the space in the centre of the spinal cord and the brain covering. So the fluid can circulate around and through the brain and spinal cord.
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Where it starts
Brain tumours can start anywhere in the brain.
They cause different symptoms depending on their position in the brain.
For example:
★ If you have weakness on your left side, the tumour is in the right side of your brain
★ A tumour in the parietal lobe can affect speech, reading or writing
★ A tumour in the occipital lobe can cause sight problems
★ A tumour in the cerebellum can affect balance and movement
How common it is
The Most Common Brain Tumor: 5 Things You Should Know.
Read full Articles & Answers
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The Normal Unfixed Brain: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain Dissections
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org
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Facts | Causes | Symptoms | Research
Breast Cancer is a kind of cancer that develops from breast cells.
Breast cancer usually starts off in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. A malignant tumor can spread to other parts of the body.
According to the National Cancer Institute, 232,340 female breast cancers and 2,240 male breast cancers are reported in the USA each year, as well as about 39,620 deaths caused by the disease.
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Breast Cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Signs of Breast Cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin. In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin.
Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, and family history. About 5–10% of cases are due to genes inherited from a person's parents, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others. Breast cancer most commonly develops in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Cancers developing from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those developing from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas. In addition, there are more than 18 other sub-types of breast cancer. Some cancers, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions. The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking a biopsy of the concerning lump. Once the diagnosis is made, further tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast and which treatments it may respond to.
Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast.
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The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial. A 2013 Cochrane review stated that it is unclear if mammographic screening does more good or harm. A 2009 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force found evidence of benefit in those 40 to 70 years of age, and the organization recommends screening every two years in women 50 to 74 years old. The medications tamoxifen or raloxifene may be used in an effort to prevent breast cancer in those who are at high risk of developing it. Surgical removal of both breasts is another preventative measure in some high risk women. In those who have been diagnosed with cancer, a number of treatments may be used, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. Types of surgery vary from breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy. Breast reconstruction may take place at the time of surgery or at a later date. In those in whom the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, treatments are mostly aimed at improving quality of life and comfort.
Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast.
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Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the types of breast cancer and related conditions, extent of disease, and person's age. Survival rates in the developed world are high, with between 80% and 90% of those in England and the United States alive for at least 5 years. In developing countries survival rates are poorer. Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women, accounting for 25% of all cases. In 2012 it resulted in 1.68 million new cases and 522,000 deaths. It is more common in developed countries and is more than 100 times more common in women than in men... read more
Article Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A mature human female's breast consists of fat, connective tissue and thousands of lobules - tiny glands which produce milk. The milk of a breastfeeding mother goes through tiny ducts (tubes) and is delivered through the nipple.
The breast, like any other part of the body, consists of billions of microscopic cells. These cells multiply in an orderly fashion - new cells are made to replace the ones that died.
The anatomy of a Female Breast
1. Chest wall. 2. Pectoralis muscles. 3. Lobules (glands that make milk). 4. Nipple surface. 5. Areola. 6. Lactiferous duct tube that carries milk to the nipple. 7. Fatty tissue. 8. Skin.
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In cancer, the cells multiply uncontrollably, and there are too many cells, progressively more and more than there should be.
Cancer that begins in the lactiferous duct (milk duct), known as ductal carcinoma, is the most common type. Cancer that begins in the lobules, known as lobular carcinoma, is much less common.
Find out further information about Female Breast
Article Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com

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Breasts are made of fat, connective tissue, and gland tissue divided into lobes.
A network of ducts spreads from the lobes towards the nipple.
One Breast is usually smaller than the other. Your breasts may feel different at different times in the month. It is common for breasts to feel lumpy just before your period.
Younger women have more glandular tissue than fat in their breasts, making them dense.
After the menopause the glandular tissue is gradually replaced by fat, which is less dense.
Breast Cancer most commonly starts in the cells that line the ducts of the breast.
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9 out of 10 of these cancers have no special features when the cells are looked at under the microscope. They are called Invasive Breast Cancer (NST). NST stands for No Special Type.
Around 1 in 10 breast cancers (10%) are invasive lobular carcinoma. This means that the cancer started in the cells that line the lobules of the breast. There are other rarer types of breast cancer.
Also check out Types of breast cancer
There is a network of lymph glands (also called lymph nodes) close to the breast. They are part of the lymphatic system that runs throughout the body. The lymph nodes and lymph vessles have a yellow fluid called lymph that flows through your lymphatic system. It collects waste products and drains into your veins for the waste to be removed. Cancer cells released from the breast tissue can be trapped in the nearby lymph nodes.
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The lymph glands in the armpit (axilla) are called the axillary lymph glands. There is also a chain of lymph nodes that runs up the centre of your chest, close to your breast bone. This is called the internal mammary chain.
Around 55,200 people are diagnosed with breast cancer in the UK each year. That is around 150 people a day.
It is more common in women than men. Around 54,800 women are diagnosed each year and around 390 men.
1 in 8 women in the UK develop breast cancer during their lifetime. 1 in 870 men develop it. Most of the women who get breast cancer have had their menopause, but about 2 out of every 10 (20%) are under 50 years old. Breast cancer risk can be affected by age, family history and lifestyle factors such as obesity and smoking.
Also check out about risk factors for breast cancer
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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A different types of

Read about the different types of breast cancer and conditions
related to breast cancer.
Also check out about risk factors for breast cancer
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There are several different types of breast cancer. To determine an appropriate approach to treating the disease, your doctor will first evaluate the specifics of the breast tumor, including:
1. If the disease has spread beyond the breast.
2. The type of tissue where the disease began.

There are 10 types of breast cancer and related conditions:
Invasive Breast Cancer/浸润性乳腺癌
Invasive Breast Cancer (no special type) is the most common type of breast cancer. Find out about it and how it is treated.
Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer/侵袭性小叶乳腺癌
Read about invasive lobular breast cancer and its treatment.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer/三阴阴性乳腺癌
Triple Negative Breast Cancer is an uncommon type of breast cancer. The main treatments are surgery and chemotherapy.
Inflammatory breast cancer/炎症性乳腺癌
This is a rare type of breast cancer. The breast might look swollen and red (inflamed) and may feel warm.
Rare types of breast cancer/罕见类型的乳腺癌
Find out about the different types of rarer breast cancers.
Angiosarcoma of the breast/乳腺的血管肉瘤
Angiosarcomas of the breast are a type of soft tissue sarcoma. They start in cells in the walls of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels.
Male breast cancer/男性乳腺癌
Find out about male breast cancer, treatment and where to get help and support.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)/导管原位癌
DCIS means that some of the cells lining the breast ducts have started to become abnormal.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)/原位小叶癌
LCIS is not cancer. There are changes to the cells within the lining of the lobules of the breast. Having LCIS increases the risk of breast cancer.
Paget’s disease of the breast/佩吉特的乳腺疾病
Paget's disease is a rare skin condition that is associated with some breast cancers.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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Invasive Breast Cancer occurs when cancer cells from inside the milk ducts or lobules break out into nearby breast tissue. Cancer cells can travel from the breast to other parts of the body through the blood stream or the lymphatic system.
Invasive Breast Cancer means that the cancer cells have grown through the lining of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. NST stands for No Special Type.
Special type means that when the doctor looks at the cancer cells under a microscope, the cells have particular features. Breast cancers that are classed as special type include lobular breast cancer and some rare types of breast cancer.
Most Invasive Breast Cancers have no special features and so are classed as No Special Type. NST is also sometimes called NOS (not otherwise specified). It used to be called ductal carcinoma.
Remember that if your doctor has told you that you have ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), you don't have Invasive Breast Cancer.
Refer to information about DCIS
Make an appointment to see your doctor if you notice anything different or unusual about the look and feel of your breasts.
The Possible Symptoms of Breast Cancer include:
★ A lump or thickening in an area of the breast
★ A change in the size, shape or feel of the breast dimpling of the skin
★ A change in the shape of your nipple, particularly if it turns in, sinks into the breast, or has an irregular shape
★ A blood stained discharge from the nipple
★ A rash on a nipple or surrounding area
★ A swelling or lump in the armpit
Early signs of Beast Cancer:
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You go to a specialist breast clinic. At the breast clinic the doctor or specialist nurse takes your medical history and examines your breasts. They also feel for any swollen (enlarged) lymph nodes under your arms and at the base of your neck.
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You have some of the following tests:
★ A mammogram (an x-ray of the breasts)
★ An ultrasound (if you are under 35 you are more likely to have an ultrasound scan instead of a mammogram)
★ A biopsy – a small sample of cells or tissue is taken from your breast and looked at under a microscope
Read about tests for breast cancer
To decide on the most appropriate treatment, doctors generally take into account:
★ The type of breast cancer
★ The size of the cancer and whether it has spread (the stage)
★ How abnormal the cells look under the microscope (the grade)
★ Whether the cancer cells have receptors for particular hormones
★ Whether the cells have receptors for biological therapies
For invasive breast cancer you might have:
★ Surgery
★ Radiotherapy
★ Chemotherapy
★ Hormone therapy
★ A combination of these treatments
About treatment decisions for breast cancer
You will have regular check ups once you finish your treatment. Your doctor will examine you and ask about your general health.
This is your chance to ask questions and to tell your doctor if anything is worrying you.
It’s important to remember that you can still contact someone if you are concerned about a symptom and it is a while before your next appointment. Speak to your GP, or contact your consultant or specialist nurse.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation.
Guidelines say that everyone who has had treatment for early breast cancer should have a copy of a written care plan.
The care plan has information about tests, and signs and symptoms to look out for. It will also include contact details for specialist staff, such as your breast care nurse.
After your treatment you have regular check ups for at least 5 years. This usually includes yearly mammograms for at least 5 years if you are already part of the national screening programme. Or yearly mammograms until you are able to go for breast screening, at which point they change to every 3 years.
Why you have follow up appointments? What happens?
Invasive breast cancer is the most common type of breast cancer. So most breast cancer research will be looking at this type.
Research includes:
★ The causes and prevention of breast cancer
★ Screening and diagnosis
★ New treatments
★ Ways to improve existing treatments
★ Ways to cope with cancer and its treatment
Look for breast cancer trials
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Invasive Lobular Carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. Invasive cancer means the cancer cells have broken out of the lobule where they began and have the potential to spread to the lymph nodes and other areas of the body.
Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer means that the cancer started in the cells that line the lobules and has spread into the surrounding breast tissue. The lobules are the glands that make milk when breastfeeding.
The outlook for Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer is much the same as for the most common type of invasive breast cancer, called No Special Type or NST.
Remember that if your doctor has told you that you have lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), you do not have Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer. These are two different things.
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Find information about LCIS
More than 1 in 10 breast cancers diagnosed (12.2%) are invasive lobular carcinoma. This type can develop in women of any age. But it is most common in women between 45 and 55 years old.
Male breast cancer is rare. It is very unusual for a man to have an invasive lobular type of breast cancer.
Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer does not always form a firm lump. You may have a thickened area of breast tissue instead of a definite lump.
Possible symptoms include:
★ An area of thickening or swelling
★ A change in the nipple, for example if it turns inwards (inverted)
★ A change in the skin, such as dimpling or thickening
While Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer can cause these particular symptoms, it’s worth being aware of the general symptoms of breast cancer.
Go to the general symptoms of breast cancer
You go to a specialist breast clinic. At the breast clinic the doctor or specialist nurse takes your medical history and examines your breasts. They also feel for any swollen (enlarged) lymph nodes under your arms and at the base of your neck.
You have some of the following tests:
★ A mammogram (an x-ray of the breasts)
★ An ultrasound (if you are under 35 you are more likely to have an ultrasound scan instead of a mammogram)
★ A biopsy – a small sample of cells or tissue is taken from your breast and looked at under a microscope
Read more about breast cancer tests
The treatment for invasive lobular breast cancer is the same as for the more common type of breast cancer (invasive breast cancer NST). Usually, you have surgery to remove the area of cancer and a surrounding area of healthy tissue (wide local excision).
Invasive lobular breast cancer is sometimes found in more than one area within the breast. In that case, it may not be possible to remove just the area of the cancer. Your doctor may then recommend removal of the whole breast (a mastectomy).
If you choose to, you can have a new breast made (breast reconstruction) at the same time as mastectomy or some time afterwards.
After the surgery you might have:
★ Chemotherapy
★ Biological therapy
★ A combination of these treatments
You might also have hormone therapy if your breast cancer cells have oestrogen receptors (they are oestrogen receptor positive). Oestrogen is a female sex hormone. It can cause some breast cancers to grow by stimulating particular receptors in the cancer cells.
About treatment decisions for breast cancer
Read about breast reconstruction
You have regular check ups once you finish your treatment. At your check up appointments your doctor or specialist nurse examines you and asks about your general health.
This is your chance to ask questions and to tell your doctor if anything is worrying you.
It’s important to remember that you can still contact someone if you are worried about a symptom between appointments. Don’t just leave it. Speak to your GP, or contact your consultant or specialist nurse.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation.
Many breast cancer trials are for people with invasive breast cancer. A trial might ask for a specific type of invasive breast cancer. But most trials include people with invasive lobular cancer and those with invasive breast cancer (No Special Type).
Breast cancer research is looking at:
★ The causes and prevention of breast cancer
★ Screening and diagnosis
★ New treatments
★ Ways to improve existing treatments
★ Ways to cope with cancer and its treatment
Look for breast cancer trials
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Is cancer genetic/癌症是遗传吗?
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In other words, a Triple Negative Breast Cancer/三阴阴性乳腺癌 diagnosis means that the offending tumor is estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and HER2-negative, thus giving rise to the name “Triple Negative Breast Cancer.” On a positive note, this type of breast cancer is typically responsive to chemotherapy.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer are cancers whose cells don’t have receptors for:
★ The hormones oestrogen and progesterone
★ Her2 protein
Your doctor uses a sample of your cancer to test the cells for these receptors. You might have this testing following a biopsy, or surgery to remove your cancer.
A rare type of breast cancer known as basal type breast cancer is usually triple negative. Some women with Triple Negative Breast Cancer also have a BRCA1 gene fault. BRCA1 is one of the gene faults that can increase the risk of breast cancer within families.
Some men have Triple Negative Breast Cancer but this is very rare. Most men have oestrogen receptors in their cancer cells.
Receptors are proteins that some cancer cells have. When specific substances in your body attach to specific receptors, they trigger a reaction in the cell. When they are triggered, these different receptors can tell cancer cells to grow.
Oestrogen attaches to oestrogen receptors. Progesterone attaches to progesterone receptors. And Her2 attaches to Her2 receptors. Many breast cancers have one or more of these receptors. Triple Negative Breast Cancers don’t have any of them. So hormone treatment and the biological therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) wouldn't benefit people with Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Only around 15 out of every 100 breast cancers (15%) are triple negative.
The symptoms of Triple Negative Breast Cancer are similar to other breast cancer types. Make an appointment to see your GP if you notice anything different or unusual about the look and feel of your breasts.
Symptoms include:
★ A lump or thickening in an area of the breast
★ A change in the size, shape or feel of the breast
★ A Dimpling of the skin
★ A change in the shape of your nipple, particularly if it turns in, sinks into the breast, or has an irregular shape
★ A blood stained discharge from the nipple
★ A rash on a nipple or surrounding area
★ A swelling or lump in the armpit
You go to a specialist breast clinic. At the breast clinic the doctor or specialist nurse takes your medical history and examines your breasts. They also feel for any swollen (enlarged) lymph nodes under your arms and at the base of your neck.
You have some of the following tests:
★ A mammogram (an x-ray of the breasts)
★ An ultrasound (you are more likely to have this instead of a mammogram if you are under 35)
★ A biopsy – your doctor or nurse take a small sample of cells or tissue from your breast to look at under a microscope
Find out about breast cancer tests
The main treatments for Triple Negative Breast Cancer include surgery and chemotherapy.
The treatment you need depends on:
★ Where the cancer is
★ The size of the cancer and whether it has spread (the stage)
★ How abnormal the cells look under the microscope (the grade)
★ Your general health
Surgery
The main treatments for Triple Negative Breast Cancer include surgery and chemotherapy.
You might have surgery to remove:
★ An area of the breast (wide local excision or lumpectomy)
★ The whole breast (mastectomy)
When you have your surgery, the surgeon might take out some of the lymph nodes under your arm. They test these nodes to see if they contain cancer cells. The surgeon might check the lymph nodes closest to the breast using a procedure called sentinel lymph node biopsy. Testing the lymph nodes helps to find the stage of the cancer and decide on further treatment.
You usually have radiotherapy to the rest of the breast tissue after a wide local excision (lumpectomy).
Find out about Surgery and Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
You might have chemotherapy before surgery. This could shrink the cancer enough to make an operation possible. Or it might mean that you can have an area of the breast removed, instead of needing a mastectomy.
You usually have chemotherapy after your operation. The chemotherapy reduces the risk of the breast cancer coming back. You usually have a combination of chemotherapy drugs. This includes an anthracycline, such as doxorubicin or epirubicin.
Doctors also use chemotherapy for cancer that has spread elsewhere in the body. This is called advanced breast cancer. You usually have a combination of different drugs. This might include a drug such as doxorubicin or epirubicin. And a taxane drug, such as paclitaxel or docetaxel.
Researchers are still looking into the best chemotherapy combinations. And they want to find out whether adding other drugs could improve the results of treatment.
Find out about Chemotherapy for breast cancer
You have regular check ups once you finish your treatment. At your check up appointments your doctor or specialist nurse examines you and asks about your general health.
This is your chance to ask questions and to tell your doctor if anything is worrying you.
It’s important to remember that you can still contact someone if you are worried about a symptom between appointments. Don’t just leave it. Speak to your GP, or contact your consultant or specialist nurse.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation.
Your doctor or nurse might ask you to take part in a trial to improve treatments for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Doctors are testing a hormone therapy called enzalutamide for breast cancer with androgen receptors. Androgens are hormones made in both men and women. Some Triple Negative Breast Cancers have androgen receptors.
Doctors also want to find out whether certain types of biological therapy can prevent breast cancer coming back. Trials are looking at drugs called such as olaparib and LCL161.
Trials are comparing different types of chemotherapy to see which one is better at treating advanced disease. For example, researchers are waiting for the results of the Triple Negative Trial (TNT) to find out whether it is better to use carboplatin or docetaxel.
Research is looking at the use of biological therapies alongside other treatments. For example, a trial is using a drug called atezolizumab in combination with chemotherapy.
Researchers think that biological therapy on its own might help to control the growth of the cancer. Trials are testing a monoclonal antibody called pembrolizumab.
Find trials for Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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This is a rare type of breast cancer. Less than 1 in 10,000 breast cancers diagnosed (0.02%) are inflammatory breast cancer. The breast might look swollen and red (inflamed) and may feel warm.
In Inflammatory Breast Cancer, the cancer cells block the smallest lymph channels in the breast. The lymph channels (or lymph ducts) are part of the lymphatic system. They normally drain excess tissue fluid away from the body tissues and organs. The lymph channels can’t do this job properly if they are blocked.
Learn more about the lymphatic system
Inflammatory Breast Cancer is a rare and very aggressive disease in which cancer cells block lymph vessels in the skin of the breast. This type of breast cancer is called “inflammatory” because the breast often looks swollen and red, or inflamed.
Inflammatory breast cancer is rare, accounting for 1 to 5 percent of all breast cancers diagnosed in the United States. Most inflammatory breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas, which means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond the ducts.
Inflammatory breast cancer progresses rapidly, often in a matter of weeks or months. At diagnosis, inflammatory breast cancer is either stage III or IV disease, depending on whether cancer cells have spread only to nearby lymph nodes or to other tissues as well.
Make an appointment to see your doctor if you notice any change in the look or feel of your breasts.
Because the lymph channels are blocked, the breast might become:
★ Swollen
★ Red
★ Firm or hard
★ Hot to the touch
The breast can also be painful in inflammatory breast cancer, but this is not always the case.
Other possible symptoms include:
★ Ridges or thickening of the skin of the breast
★ Pitted skin, like orange peel
★ A lump in the breast
★ A discharge from the nipple
★ An inverted nipple – the nipple is pulled into the breast
Inflammatory breast cancer symptoms can appear quite suddenly.
Inflammatory breast cancer is often confused with an infection of the breast (mastitis). This is because the symptoms are very similar. Mastitis is uncommon in women who are not pregnant or breast feeding, and particularly rare in women who are past their menopause.
Your doctor might give you a course of antibiotics first if they think that you could have mastitis. Or they might refer you to a specialist if they think you are unlikely to have an infection, or your symptoms don’t clear up after antibiotics.
While inflammatory breast cancer can cause these particular symptoms, it’s worth being aware of the general symptoms of breast cancer.
General Symptoms of Breast Cancer
You go to a breast cancer specialist, who will arrange some tests. The same tests are used to diagnose inflammatory breast cancer as for any other type of breast cancer.
For some women, it is not possible to do a mammogram if the breast is swollen and painful. You may have a different type of scan, such as a breast ultrasound. Or some women might have a CT scan or PET/CT.
Find out about breast cancer tests
The treatment for inflammatory breast cancer can be slightly different than for other types of breast cancer.
You usually have chemotherapy as your first treatment. This is called neo adjuvant chemotherapy. This is to help control the cancer cells in the breast and reduce the swelling. It also aims to destroy any cancer cells that may have spread elsewhere in the body.
After chemotherapy you have surgery, unless there is a reason why this isn't suitable for you. You are most likely to have your whole breast removed (a mastectomy) for inflammatory breast cancer.
Guidelines say that some women might be able to have a wide local excision in exceptional circumstances. A wide local excision removes the area of cancer, with a surrounding area of healthy tissue (wide local excision). But for most women, mastectomy is the best option.
After surgery you have radiotherapy to help stop the cancer coming back. You have hormone therapy tablets for some years if your breast cancer has hormone receptors. Your doctor might recommend you also have a biological therapy, such as trastuzumab, if your cancer has particular receptors.
The type of treatment you have also depends on your general health and whether you have any other medical conditions. Your team will discuss the pros and cons of the treatment options with you. Do ask questions so that you understand which treatments you are being offered, and why.
Treatment for breast cancer
Many factors can influence the outlook for women with inflammatory breast cancer. These include:
★ The exact position of the cancer
★ How big the cancer is and whether it has spread only to the lymph nodes or to other organs
★ How abnormal the cancer cells look under the microscope (the grade)
★ Your age
★ Your general health
★ Whether the cancer cells have receptors for hormone therapies
★ How well the cancer responds to treatment
Inflammatory breast cancer can develop quickly and spread to other parts of the body. So, in general, the outlook for women with this type is not as good as for women diagnosed with other types of breast cancer. But doctors think that the outlook is improving as breast cancer treatment improves.
You will have regular check ups once you finish your treatment. Your doctor will examine you and ask about your general health.
This is your chance to ask questions and to tell your doctor if anything is worrying you.
It’s important to remember that you can still contact someone if you are concerned about a symptom and it is a while before your next appointment. Speak to your GP, or contact your consultant or specialist nurse.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation.
Guidelines say that everyone who has had treatment for early breast cancer should have a copy of a written care plan.
The care plan has information about tests, and signs and symptoms to look out for. It will also include contact details for specialist staff, such as your breast care nurse.
After your treatment you have regular check ups for at least 5 years. This usually includes yearly mammograms for at least 5 years if you are already part of the national screening programme. Or yearly mammograms until you are able to go for breast screening, at which point they change to every 3 years.
It is difficult to carry out clinical trials in rare types of breast cancer. This is because it is not usually possible to recruit enough people into a trial. If possible, researchers try to co ordinate international trials so there are more people available and the results then have more value.
American researchers have set up the Inflammatory Breast Cancer Registry. The register is collecting blood and tissue samples from people with inflammatory breast cancer. They hope this will help them better understand this disease. Doctors are also trying to find out why this type of breast cancer can be more difficult to treat. And how it might differ from other breast cancers.
Research has already shown that most women should have chemotherapy before their surgery. Those whose cancers have a large amount of protein called HER2 may also have treatment with a drug called trastuzumab (Herceptin). Doctors are trying to improve on this treatment and look at whether adding other types of biological therapy could help.
A European trial showed that adding another biological therapy, called lapatinib, to standard treatment worked better than standard treatment alone. International trials are looking at adding other drugs, such as pertuzumab. Pertuzumab is a type of biological therapy that is already used to treat women with advanced breast cancer.
International trials are also looking at ways to improve treatment for people with inflammatory breast cancer that has spread.
Find breast cancer trials
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Grouping breast cancers Doctors have developed ways of grouping breast cancers into different types. They sometimes call rarer breast cancers special type and the more common breast cancers no special type.
Most breast cancers are invasive carcinoma - no special type. You may see this written as NST or NOS (not otherwise specified).
Special type breast cancers have cells with particular features. As well as the rare cancers listed here, lobular breast cancer is also classed as a special type.
Read about lobular breast cancer
Coping with a diagnosis of cancer can be difficult, both practically and emotionally. It can be especially difficult if you have a rare cancer. Being well informed about your cancer and its treatment can make it easier to make decisions and cope with what happens.
Talking to other people who have the same thing can help. But it can be hard to find people who have had a rare type of cancer.
Cancer Chat is Cancer Research UK’s discussion forum. It is a place for anyone affected by cancer. You can share experiences, stories and information with other people who know what you are going through.
Look at the Latest discussions about cancer
The Rare Cancers Alliance give support and information to people with rare cancers.
Look at the Rare Cancers Alliance
There may be fewer clinical trials for rare types of cancer, than for more common types. It is hard to organise and run trials for rare cancers. Getting enough patients is critical to the success of a trial. The results won't be powerful enough to prove that one type of treatment is better than another if the trial is too small.
The International Rare Cancers Initiative (IRCI) aims to develop more research into new treatments for rare cancers. They are designing trials that involve several countries so that more people will be available to enter trials.
Find out more about research and trials
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Detecting Cancer Cells Effectively
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Angiosarcomas of the breast are a type of soft tissue sarcoma.
They start in cells in the walls of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels.
Angiosarcomas are a type of soft tissue sarcoma. They are cancers that start in the cells that make up the walls of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. There are 2 main types:
★ Haemangiosarcomas start in blood vessel walls
★ Lymphangiosarcomas start in lymph vessel walls
Doctors don't tend to refer to these different types, and generally just use the term angiosarcoma.
Breast angiosarcomas are very rare and it is difficult to find much information about them. Medical journals and textbooks contain very few reports of primary breast angiosarcomas.
Most reported cases are in younger women. Some women have developed angiosarcoma as a result of having radiotherapy to their breast for a previous breast cancer.
These cancers tend to grow quickly and are generally difficult to successfully treat.
The symptoms may be similar to other types of breast cancer, including:
★ A lump or thickening in an area of the breast
★ A change in the size or shape of a breast
★ Dimpling of the skin
★ A change in the shape of your nipple, particularly if it turns in, sinks into the breast, or has an irregular shape
★ A blood stained discharge from the nipple
★ A rash on a nipple or surrounding area
★ A swelling or lump in the armpit
Angiosarcomas also often have changes in the skin colour in the area. There isn't always a lump, and they might show up as an area of skin that has changed in colour or appearance.
You go to a specialist breast clinic. At the breast clinic the doctor or specialist nurse takes your medical history and examines your breasts. They also feel for any swollen (enlarged) lymph nodes under your arms and at the base of your neck.
You have some of the following tests:
★ A mammogram (an x-ray of the breasts)
★ An ultrasound (you are more likely to have this instead of a mammogram if you are under 35)
★ A biopsy – your doctor or nurse take a small sample of cells or tissue from your breast to look at under a microscope
Information about breast cancer tests
Because breast angiosarcomas are so rare, there is no established standard treatment.
Removal of the breast (mastectomy) and chemotherapy are the most likely choices of treatment. The chemotherapy drugs might be different from those usually used to treat other types of breast cancer. There is no standard chemotherapy combination.
Radiotherapy might not be an option if you have had radiotherapy for breast cancer in the past.
Breast cancer treatments
Coping with a diagnosis of cancer can be difficult, both practically and emotionally. It can be especially difficult if you have a rare cancer. Being well informed about your cancer and its treatment can make it easier to make decisions and cope with what happens.
Talking to other people who have the same thing can help. But it can be hard to find people who have had a rare type of cancer.
Cancer Chat is Cancer Research UK’s discussion forum. It is a place for anyone affected by cancer. You can share experiences, stories and information with other people who know what you are going through.
Look at the Latest discussions about cancer
The Rare Cancers Alliance give support and information to people with rare cancers.
Look at the Rare Cancers Alliance
There may be fewer clinical trials for rare types of cancer, than for more common types. It is hard to organise and run trials for rare cancers. Getting enough patients is critical to the success of a trial. The results won't be powerful enough to prove that one type of treatment is better than another if the trial is too small.
The International Rare Cancers Initiative (IRCI) aims to develop more research into new treatments for rare cancers. They are designing trials that involve several countries so that more people will be available to enter trials.
Find out more about research and trials
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Detecting Cancer Cells Effectively
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Male breast cancer (male breast neoplasm) is a rare cancer in males that originates from the breast. Many males with breast cancer have inherited a BRCA mutation, but there are other causes, including alcohol abuse and exposure to certain hormones and ionizing radiation.
As it presents a similar pathology as female breast cancer, assessment and treatment relies on experiences and guidelines that have been developed in female patients. The optimal treatment is currently not known.
Breast cancer is rare in men. There are about 390 men diagnosed each year in the UK. This compares to around 54,800 cases in women.
There are some similarities between male breast cancer and female cancer. But there are also important differences between the two. The most common type in both women and men is called 'invasive breast carcinoma - no special type'.
Check your breasts regularly
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Some men develop rarer types of breast cancer, such as inflammatory breast cancer. Or they might develop conditions related to breast cancer but these are very uncommon. They include:
★ Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
★ Paget's disease of the breast
Types of breast cancer and related conditions
The risks and causes of male breast cancer include:
Getting older
The single biggest risk factor for male breast cancer is getting older. Most breast cancers are diagnosed in men between the ages of 60 and 70.
High oestrogen levels
All men produce small amounts of the hormone called oestrogen. This is perfectly normal. But high oestrogen levels have been linked to a higher breast cancer risk.
High oestrogen levels can occur in:
★ Men who are very overweight (obese)
★ Chronic liver conditions, such as cirrhosis
★ Some genetic conditions
Klinefelter's syndrome
Klinefelter's syndrome is a rare genetic condition where a man is born with an extra female chromosome. So he has XXY chromosomes instead of XY. This leads to a hormone imbalance where their body makes less testosterone.
Men with Klinefelter's have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. But this doesn't mean that they will definitely develop it. Breast cancer in men is rare. So even if men have an increased risk (as with Kleinfelter’s), their risk remains quite low.
Exposure to radiation
Men who have been exposed to radiation repeatedly, over a long period of time, are more likely to develop male breast cancer. This is particularly true if they were young when the radiation exposure took place.
A family history or a recognised breast cancer gene in the family
Men who have female relatives with breast cancer have an increased risk of breast cancer, especially if the women are close relatives (mother or sisters). The risk also increases if the women were diagnosed at a young age (below 40). Men, as well as women, can inherit faulty genes that can cause breast cancer.
Around 3 in 100 breast cancers diagnosed in women (3%) are thought to be due directly to an inherited faulty gene. In men, this may be more common. We think that between 10 and 20 out of every 100 diagnosed in men (10 to 20%) are due to inherited faulty genes. In men with breast cancer the BRCA2 faulty gene is more common than BRCA1.
Find out about inherited genes and cancer
The most common symptom for men with breast cancer is a lump in the breast area. This is nearly always painless.
Other symptoms can include:
★ Oozing from the nipple (a discharge) that may be blood stained
★ Swelling of the breast
★ A sore (ulcer) in the skin of the breast
★ A nipple that is pulled into the breast (called nipple retraction)
★ Lumps under the arm
★ A rash on or around the nipple
Male Breast Cancer Symptoms and Signs
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If you have any of these symptoms it is important to go to your GP straight away. Finding a cancer early gives the best chance of successful treatment.
You usually have a painless scan using sound waves, called an ultrasound. You might also have a breast x-ray (mammogram).
If your scan shows an area that could be cancer, your specialist takes a sample (biopsy) of breast tissue. This is then examined under a microscope by a specialist. If these tests show that you have breast cancer, you might have other tests to see whether the cancer has spread.
These tests include:
★ MRI scan
★ Lymph node ultrasound scan
★ Liver scan
★ Bone scan
Information about breast cancer tests
The same treatments are used for breast cancer in men as for women.
To decide on the most appropriate treatment, doctors generally take into account:
★ The type of breast cancer
★ The size of the cancer and whether it has spread (the stage)
★ How abnormal the cells look under the microscope (the grade)
★ Whether the cancer cells have receptors for particular hormones
★ Whether the cells have receptors for biological therapies
Find out about stages, types and grades

To treat your cancer, you might have one or more of the following treatments:
★ Surgery
★ Radiotherapy
★ Chemotherapy
★ Hormone therapy
★ Biological therapy
Surgery
The most common operation is removal of the whole breast (mastectomy) including the nipple. There is not very much breast tissue in men, so it isn't usually possible to leave any behind. Sometimes the surgeon also removes part of the underlying muscle if it is close to the cancer.
The surgeon might also remove some of the lymph nodes from the armpit. They send the nodes to the laboratory to see if they contain cancer cells. Or the surgeon might check the lymph nodes closest to the breast using a procedure called sentinel node biopsy.
Creating a new nipple
Once treatment has finished your surgeon can make a new nipple for you if you want it. You need to wait a few months after the mastectomy to allow any swelling to go down and the wound to heal.
The surgeon might be able to create the shape of a nipple using the skin from another part of your body (a skin graft). For example, the surgeon might use skin from your groin. The new nipple won't have any feeling, and won't respond to touch or temperature.
Other options include tattooing a new nipple and areola on to the chest. Or you can use stick on nipples. Your breast care nurse can tell you where to get them.
Read about nipple reconstruction
Chemotherapy
You might have chemotherapy after surgery. This helps reduce the chance of the cancer coming back or spreading.
Your doctor will usually recommend chemotherapy if you have one or more of the following:
★ Cancer cells in the lymph nodes under the arm
★ A tumour larger than 2cm
★ You are young
★ The cancer is high grade
Very rarely, chemotherapy is given before surgery to shrink a large cancer and make it possible to remove it.
Chemotherapy for breast cancer
Radiotherapy
Your specialist is likely to suggest radiotherapy after surgery. This treatment lowers the risk of the cancer cells growing back in the area of the breast in the future. You usually have radiotherapy for a few minutes each day from Monday to Friday, for 3 to 6 weeks. Some hospitals give radiotherapy on alternate days, rather than every day.
Radiotherapy for breast cancer
Hormone therapy
Some breast cancer cells are stimulated to grow by the hormones oestrogen or progesterone. Men have small amounts of oestrogen and progesterone in their body. Most male breast cancer cells have receptors for these hormones. This is called hormone receptor positive breast cancer.
Your specialist will arrange receptor tests on your cancer cells when you are first diagnosed. If your cancer cells have hormone receptors, your doctor might prescribe hormone therapy for you. This can help to reduce the chance of the cancer coming back. You usually take these therapies for at least 5 years.
The most common hormone therapy for male breast cancer is tamoxifen. Side effects include:
★ Hot flushes
★ Loss of sex drive
★ Feeling sick – this might wear off once you have been taking it for a while
★ Weight gain
★ Difficulty sleeping
★ Sadness and depression
Information about hormone therapy
Biological therapy
Your doctor will check your cancer cells for receptors called HER2 receptors. If your cancer cells have a lot of these receptors, your doctor will prescribe a biological therapy for you.
The most common biological therapy for breast cancer is trastuzumab (Herceptin).
Biological therapies
Some men are diagnosed with cancer that has already spread. Or the cancer might come back and spread after treatment. This is called secondary breast cancer, advanced breast cancer or metastatic breast cancer.
In this situation your doctor might recommend:
★ Chemotherapy
★ Hormone therapy
★ Biological therapy
★ A combination of these treatments
Treatment for advanced cancer
It is very common to hear about breast cancer in women. But it isn't common to hear about it in men.
Coping with a diagnosis of cancer can be difficult, both practically and emotionally. It can be especially difficult if you have a rare cancer. Being well informed about your cancer and its treatment can make it easier to make decisions and cope with what happens.
As male breast cancer is rare, you are likely to have treatment in a large, specialist hospital. So your consultant may know other men with breast cancer you could talk to.
Information about breast cancer
Look at Cancer Chat
Cancer Research UK’s discussion forum is a place for anyone affected by cancer. You can share experiences, stories and information with other people who know what you are going through.
Look at the Latest discussions about cancer
Information Nurses
You can phone the Cancer Research UK nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040. The lines are open from 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday. They will be happy to answer any questions that you have.
A charity called Breast Cancer Care has male volunteers you can talk to.
Find out about breast cancer resources and organisations
You have regular check ups once you finish your treatment. At your check up appointments your doctor or specialist nurse examines you and asks about your general health.
This is your chance to ask questions and to tell your doctor if anything is worrying you.
It’s important to remember that you can still contact someone if you are worried about a symptom between appointments. Don’t just leave it. Speak to your GP, or contact your consultant or specialist nurse.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation.
It is difficult to organise trials and research for rare cancers. For example, it can be hard to recruit enough men with breast cancer within a certain time. So a group of experts from all over the world has developed an International Male Breast Cancer Program.
They aim to collect information about men who were diagnosed with breast cancer over the past 20 years. And they also collect information about men being diagnosed now.
The programme will look at:
★ Risk factors for male breast cancer
★ Types of breast cancer
★ The proteins (markers) on the cancer
★ Treatment
★ How well treatment works
The programme aims to be able to run clinical trials specifically for men with breast cancer.
There are similarities between male breast cancer and breast cancer in women. But some researchers think there are important differences. These differences might help to develop new treatments in the future if researchers can understand them more fully.
Some breast cancer trials are recruiting women only. But increasingly, treatment trials are recruiting men with breast cancer as well as women.
Trials are trying to improve standard treatments for breast cancer, as well as looking at new treatments.
Find breast cancer trials on our database
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive cancer where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the breast milk duct. The atypical cells have not spread outside of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue.
DCIS means that some cells in the lining of the ducts of the breast tissue have started to turn into cancer cells. These cells are all contained inside the ducts. They have not started to spread into the surrounding breast tissue.
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Doctors might describe DCIS in different ways. These include pre invasive, non invasive, ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN) or intra ductal cancer.
In some people if DCIS is not treated, it could become an invasive cancer. DCIS and invasive breast cancer are not the same thing.
In invasive breast cancer, the cancer cells have broken out of the ducts and spread into the surrounding breast tissue. There is then a chance that the cells can spread into nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
Find out more about invasive breast cancer
Around 5,100 people are diagnosed with DCIS in the United Kingdom each year. This includes about 15 men with DCIS each year in the UK.
DCIS is diagnosed more often now than in the past. It is often picked up in women when they have mammograms as part of the screening programme. Men do not have a breast screening programme.
Many people do not have any symptoms when they are diagnosed.
A small number of people have:
★ A lump in the breast
★ Discharge from the nipple which might be blood stained
Read about the general symptoms of breast cancer
The grade of a cancer tells you how much the cancer cells look like normal cells. It gives your doctor an idea of how the cancer might behave and what treatment you need.
DCIS grade is divided into:
★ Low grade (more slowly growing)
★ Intermediate grade
★ High grade (more quickly growing)
Doctors think that high grade DCIS is more likely to:
★ Come back after treatment
★ Spread into the surrounding breast tissue (become an invasive cancer)
Surgery is the main treatment for DCIS. This is the case for most types of breast cancer.
You might have surgery to remove:
★ An area of the breast (wide local excision)
★ The whole breast (mastectomy)
Your surgeon might recommend that you have a particular surgery. Or they might give you a choice of operations.
Women have different reasons for choosing a particular operation. For example, some women prefer to keep as much of their breast as possible. Other women prefer to have the whole breast removed as it makes them feel more confident that the DCIS is cured. It is important to discuss your options with your doctor or nurse.
Removal of part of the breast
Many women have surgery to remove the area of DCIS, with a border of healthy tissue around it. This is called a wide local excision (WLE) or breast conserving surgery, or sometimes a lumpectomy.
After this surgery, you might have radiotherapy to the rest of the breast tissue if the DCIS cells look very abnormal (high grade). The radiotherapy treatment aims to kill off any abnormal cells that may still be within the breast tissue. Your doctor will discuss with you the possible benefits and risks of radiotherapy.
Read more about radiotherapy
Removal of the whole of the breast
You might have a mastectomy if:
★ The area of the DCIS in your breast is large
★ There are several areas of DCIS in your breast
★ You have small breasts and too much of the breast is affected by DCIS to make wide local excision possible
If you want to, you can choose to have a new breast made (breast reconstruction) at the time of the mastectomy, or sometime afterwards.
Find out more about breast reconstruction
Hormone therapy
Doctors continue to research the role of tamoxifen and other hormone therapies as a treatment for DCIS. Trial results have had mixed results.
Some trials suggest that taking tamoxifen after surgery for DCIS reduces the risk of it coming back (recurrence). And can reduce the number of further invasive breast cancers and DCIS. But in these trials, those taking tamoxifen did not live any longer that those who did not take it.
Your doctor might suggest that you have tamoxifen if your DCIS cells have oestrogen receptors.
You will have regular check ups once you finish your treatment. Your doctor will examine you and ask about your general health.
This is your chance to ask questions and to tell your doctor if anything is worrying you.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation.
Your specialist might suggest yearly mammograms (breast X-rays) until you are invited for 3 yearly mammograms as part of the national breast screening programme. Or if you are already part of the screening programme, you might have yearly mammograms for 5 years.
Trials are looking at the possible causes of DCIS. For example, looking for particular genetic changes that might increase the risk of developing DCIS.
Researchers are also trying to find out whether those with low or intermediate risk DCIS need to have treatment.
Doctors would like to improve existing treatments as well as reduce the side effects. For example, one trial is trying to find out if internal radiotherapy (brachytherapy) is a good as external radiotherapy for DCIS.
Go to trials for DCIS
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition in which abnormal cells form in the lobules or milk glands in the breast. LCIS isn't cancer. But being diagnosed with LCIS indicates that you have an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) means that cells inside some of the breast lobules have started to become abnormal. The lobules are glands that make milk when breast feeding. The abnormal cells are all contained within the inner lining of the breast lobules.
LCIS is also called lobular neoplasia. It might be found in both breasts.
Having LCIS means that you have an increased risk of getting invasive breast cancer in either breast in the future. Even so, most women with LCIS will not develop breast cancer. Men can develop LCIS but this is very rare.
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LCIS is more common in women who have not had their menopause. About 560 women are diagnosed with LCIS each year in the United Kingdom. Diagnosing LCIS
LCIS doesn't usually show up on breast x-rays (mammograms), and it normally doesn't cause symptoms. It's often diagnosed by chance when you have tests, such as a biopsy, for other breast conditions.
Please note that there is a type of breast cancer called invasive lobular breast cancer - this is different to LCIS.
Read about invasive lobular breast cancer
Most women with LCIS will not get breast cancer. So you usually don't need to have any treatment.
Monitoring
Your doctor might suggest monitoring because there is an increased risk of breast cancer. You might have:
★ A breast examination every 6 to 12 months
★ A breast X-ray (mammogram) every year for about 5 years
Your specialist might suggest yearly mammograms until you are invited for 3 yearly mammograms as part of the national breast screening programme. Or if you are already part of the screening programme, you might have yearly mammograms for 5 years.
If a cancer does start to develop, the monitoring should pick it up at a very early stage. Then you can have the treatment you need as early as possible.
Surgery
You might have surgery rather than monitoring if you have a particular type of LCIS called pleomorphic LCIS. You might have surgery to remove your breast (mastectomy). Or you might have a lumpectomy (a wide local excision) to remove the area surrounding the LCIS.
Pleomorphic LCIS is treated more like ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which is a very early form of breast cancer.
Hormone therapy
If you have been diagnosed with LCIS, your doctor might suggest that you take a type of hormone therapy to lower the chance of breast cancer in the future.
Go to more information about breast cancer treatments
Find out about hormone therapy for breast cancer
Research has focused on the genetic changes which might increase the risk of developing LCIS. Trials have shown that some of the known genetic changes that increase the risk of breast cancer in general, also increase the risk of developing LCIS.
Researchers are also looking at the use of hormone therapy to prevent invasive breast cancer following a diagnosis of LCIS.
The IBIS 2 prevention trial followed post menopausal women who took the hormone therapy, anastrozole (Arimidex), for 5 years. This included some women with LCIS. Results showed that hormone therapy did reduce the risk of breast cancer in these women.
Find trials for LCIS
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Paget's disease of the nipple is a rare form of breast cancer in which cancer cells collect in or around the nipple. The cancer usually affects the ducts of the nipple first (small milk-carrying tubes), then spreads to the nipple surface and the areola (the dark circle of skin around the nipple).
This condition develops in the nipple or the darker area of skin around it (the areola).
Paget’s disease is a sign that there might be breast cancer in the tissues behind the nipple. It is possible for someone to have Paget’s of the breast with no underlying cancer. But this is less common.
About half of the people diagnosed with Paget's disease have a lump behind the nipple. In 9 out of 10 cases, this is an invasive breast cancer. Invasive breast cancer can also be present in some people with Paget's disease who have no lump.
Find out more about invasive breast cancer
But most people with no lump have carcinoma in situ. This means that there are cancer cells in the biopsy but they are completely contained within the lining of the breast ducts.
Read about ductal carcinoma in situ
Paget's disease is rare. It is found in 1 to 4 out of every 100 breast cancers (1 to 4%). It can happen in men but this is even more rare.
It usually first appears as a red, scaly rash of the skin over the nipple and areola. It can be itchy, painful or cause a burning sensation. You might have some discharge or bleeding from the nipple. Or the nipple can change in appearance, going inwards when it wasn’t inverted before.
If it isn't treated, or if you scratch it, it can bleed, ulcerate and may scab over. It looks very similar to other skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema. It is sometimes diagnosed quite late, and this may be because it is often first treated as eczema, before any cancer tests are done.
While Paget’s disease of the breast can cause these particular symptoms, it’s worth being aware of the general symptoms of breast cancer.
General symptoms of breast cancer
Paget's disease is diagnosed from a biopsy. A breast surgeon takes a sample of the affected skin tissue (a biopsy). They send it to the laboratory for examination under a microscope. If the biopsy shows Paget's disease, you then have a mammogram or breast ultrasound, or sometimes an MRI scan.
Information about breast cancer tests
You have surgery to remove either the whole breast or just the affected area. Further treatment depends on:
★ Whether you have DCIS or a cancer
★ The stage (if you have a cancer)
★ How abnormal the cells look under the microscope (the grade)
★ Whether the cancer cells have receptors for particular hormones
★ Whether the cells have receptors for biological therapies
Surgery
For some women, it is possible to remove just the area containing the cancer, together with a border of healthy tissue. You might then have radiotherapy to the rest of the breast.
Removal of the whole breast (mastectomy) may be the only option if:
★ A large area is affected by Paget's disease
★ There is an area of invasive breast cancer behind the nipple
★ Your cancer is in the central area of the breast
In these situations, surgery to remove just the lump might not leave you with a good breast shape. You may get a better appearance if you have the whole breast removed. Then you can have surgery to make a new breast shape (breast reconstruction).
When you have your surgery, the surgeon might take out some of the lymph nodes under your arm. They test the nodes to see if they contain cancer cells. This helps to stage the cancer and decide on further treatment.
Surgery for breast cancer
Hormone therapy and biological therapy
If you have breast cancer and the cells have oestrogen receptors your doctor might suggest hormone therapy. This reduces the risk of the cancer coming back in the same breast (or in the chest wall after mastectomy).
Hormone therapy lowers the risk of the cancer cells spreading anywhere else in the body. And it reduces the chance of getting a new cancer in the other breast.
Your doctor might recommend you also have biological therapy if your cancer has receptors for biological therapy drugs.
Chemotherapy
Your doctor might recommend further treatment with chemotherapy if there is a significant risk that the cancer might come back. They may suggest this if:
★ Cancer cells were found in your lymph nodes
★ You had a large breast tumour
★ Your cancer cells were high grade (grade 3)
Giving chemotherapy helps to lower the risk of the cancer coming back in the future.
Breast cancer treatments
You have regular check ups once you finish your treatment. At your check up appointments your doctor or specialist nurse examines you and asks about your general health.
This is your chance to ask questions and to tell your doctor if anything is worrying you.
It’s important to remember that you can still contact someone if you are worried about a symptom between appointments. Don’t just leave it. Speak to your GP, or contact your consultant or specialist nurse.
How often you have check ups depends on your individual situation.
Doctors and researchers are carrying out trials to find better tests and treatments for Paget's disease, ductal carcinoma in situ and breast cancer.
Find out about research and clinical trials
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Early detection of breast cancer is the best way of ensuring you get the right treatment as early as possible. Screening mammograms are a very important tool, and women are recommended to undergo mammographic screening depending on their age and risk of developing breast cancer and advise from your doctor. Being breast aware is also very important. Women should be aware of how their breasts normally look and feel and, if you notice a change, you should see your doctor as soon as possible. A few examples are highlighted below, however they do not cover everything that might feel abnormal.
How to check for breast cancer symptoms:
You don’t need to be an expert, you just need to know what’s normal for you, and check both breasts regularly for symptoms like lumps, dimples, discharge or discolouration.
Early signs of Beast Cancer:
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Please remember that in most cases, changes to the breast aren’t symptoms of cancer, but if you notice changes, see your doctor as soon as possible.
Changes to look out for when doing a breast self-exam include:
★ A new lump or lumpiness, especially if it’s only in one breast
★ Your breast changing in size or shape
★ Any changes to the nipple, such as redness, inversion, crusting or discharge without squeezing
★ A change in the skin, like redness or dimpling
★ An unusual pain that doesn’t disappear
Check your breasts regularly, at the same time every month, and remember to check up to your armpit. In most cases, changes to the breast aren’t symptoms of cancer, but if you notice a change, see your doctor as soon as possible.
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Facts | Causes | Symptoms | Research
CHEMOTHERAPHY/化疗
What is Chemotherapy/化疗
for Cancer?
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Chemotherapy/化疗 is the use of any drug to treat any disease. But to most people, the word Chemotherapy/化疗 means drugs used for cancer treatment. It's often shortened to “chemo.” Surgery and radiation therapy remove, kill, or damage cancer cells in a certain area, but chemo can work throughout the whole body.
Cancer is a condition in which body continuously divide or forms large number of cells for no use. This is unstoppable process but it can be controlled with Chemotherapy/化疗. Chemoor CTX or CTx usechemotherapeutic agents, chemical substances and anti-cancer medications to kill or shrink cancer cells. It is given along with hormonal & targeted therapyto reduce symptoms.
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Other conditions treated with chemo are:
★ AL amyloidosis
★ Scleroderma
★ Crohn’s diseases
★ Psoriasis
★ Ankylosing spondylitis
★ Multiple sclerosis
★ Psoriatic arthritis
★ Systemic lupus erythematosus
★ Rheumatoid arthritis
Chemotherapy/化疗 slows down the cancer growth and stops them from dividing quickly. This therapy kills cancer cells as well as healthy cells which may cause side effects. But side effects become negligible once chemo is over...read more
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Chemotherapy is the use of any drug to treat any disease. But to most people, the word chemotherapy means drugs used for cancer treatment. It’s often shortened to “chemo.”
Surgery and radiation therapy remove, kill, or damage cancer cells in a certain area, but chemo can work throughout the whole body. This means chemo can kill cancer cells that have spread (metastasized) to parts of the body far away from the original (primary) tumor.
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Article Source: www.cancer.org

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If your doctor has recommended chemotherapy to treat your cancer, it’s important to understand the goals of treatment when making treatment decisions.
There are three main goals for chemotherapy (chemo) in cancer treatment: 1. Cure 2. Control 3. Palliation
If possible, chemo is used to cure cancer, meaning that the cancer is destroyed – it goes away and doesn’t come back.
Most doctors don’t use the word “cure” except as a possibility or intention. So, when giving treatment that has a chance of curing a person’s cancer, the doctor may describe it as treatment with curative intent.
There are no guarantees, and though cure may be the goal, it doesn’t always work out that way. It often takes many years to know if a person’s cancer is really cured.
If cure is not possible, the goal may be to control the disease. Chemo is used to shrink tumors and/or stop the cancer from growing and spreading. This can help the person with cancer feel better and live longer.
In many cases, the Cancer doesn’t completely go away, but is controlled and managed as a chronic disease, much like heart disease or diabetes. In other cases, the cancer may even seem to have gone away for a while, but it’s expected to come back. Then chemo can be given again.
Chemo can also be used to ease symptoms caused by the cancer. This is called palliative chemotherapy or palliation.
When the cancer is at an Advanced Stage, meaning it’s not under control and has spread from where it started to other parts of the body, the goal may be to improve the quality of life or help the person feel better. For instance, chemo may be used to help shrink a tumor that’s causing pain or pressure.
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It’s important to know that any treatment that’s used to reduce symptoms or improve comfort is called Plliative Care. For example, anti-nausea treatments or pain medicines are palliative, and can be used at all stages of treatment. It can be confusing when chemo is used as a palliative treatment, because it’s most often used to try to cure or control the cancer. But when it’s used with the goal of comfort, chemo becomes palliative care...read more
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You and your cancer doctor, called an oncologist, will decide what drug or combination of drugs you will get. Your doctor will choose the doses, how the drugs will be given, and how often and how long you’ll get treatment. All of these decisions will depend on the type of cancer, where it is, how big it is, and how it affects your normal body functions and overall health.
Cancer can be treated with a single chemo drug, but often several drugs are used in a certain order or in certain combinations (called combination chemotherapy). Different drugs that work in different ways can work together to kill more cancer cells. This can also help lower the chance that the cancer may become resistant to any one chemo drug.
Sometimes chemo is the only treatment you need. More often,
chemo is used with surgery or radiation therapy or both.
Here’s why:
1. Chemo may be used to shrink a tumor before surgery or radiation therapy. Chemo used in this way is called neoadjuvant therapy.
2. It may be used after surgery or radiation therapy to help kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemo used in this way is called adjuvant therapy.
3. It may be used with other treatments if your cancer comes back.

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In some cases, the best choice of doses and schedules for each chemo drug is clear, and most doctors would recommend the same treatment. In other cases, less may be known about the single best way to treat people with certain types and stages of cancer. In these cases, different doctors might choose different drug combinations with different schedules.
Factors to consider when choosing which drugs to use include:
★ The type of cancer
★ The stage of the cancer (how far it has spread)
★ The patient’s age
★ The patient’s overall health
★ Other serious health problems (such as heart, liver, or kidney diseases)
★ Types of cancer treatments given in the past
Doctors take these factors into account, along with information published in medical journals and textbooks describing the outcomes of similar patients treated with chemo.
Most chemotherapy (chemo) drugs are strong medicines that have a fairly narrow range for dose safety and effectiveness. Taking too little of a drug will not treat the cancer well and taking too much may cause life-threatening side effects. For this reason, doctors must calculate chemo doses very precisely.
Depending on the drug(s) to be given, there are different ways to determine chemo doses. Most chemo drugs are measured in milligrams (mg).
The overall dose may be based on a person’s body weight in kilograms (1 kilogram is 2.2 pounds). For instance, if the standard dose of a drug is 10 milligrams per kilogram (10 mg/kg), a person weighing 110 pounds (50 kilograms) would get 500 mg (10 mg/kg x 50 kg).
Some chemo doses are determined based on body surface area (BSA), which are calculated using height and weight. BSA is expressed in meters squared (m2).
Because children’s bodies process drugs differently, dosages for children and adults differ, even after BSA is taken into account. Children may have different levels of sensitivity to the drugs, too.
For the same reasons, dosages of some drugs may also be adjusted for people who:
★ Are elderly
★ Have poor nutritional status
★ Are obese
★ Have already taken or are currently taking other medicines
★ Have already had or are currently getting radiation therapy
★ Have low blood cell counts
★ Have liver or kidney diseases
Chemotherapy is commonly given at regular intervals called cycles. A cycle may be a dose of one or more drugs followed by several days or weeks without treatment. This gives normal cells time to recover from drug side effects. Sometimes, doses may be given a certain number of days in a row, or every other day for several days, followed by a period of rest. Some drugs work best when given continuously over a set number of days.
Each drug is given on a schedule that makes the most of its anti-cancer actions and minimizes side effects. If more than one drug is used, the treatment plan will say how often and exactly when each drug should be given. The number of cycles given may be decided before treatment starts, based on the type and stage of cancer. In some cases, the number is flexible, and will take into account how the treatment affects the cancer and the person’s overall health.
In most cases, the most effective doses and schedules of drugs to treat specific cancers have been found by testing them in Clinical Trials. It’s important, when possible, to get the full course of chemo, the full dose, and keep the cycles on schedule. This gives a person the best chance of getting the maximum benefit from treatment.
There may be times, though, when serious side effects require adjusting the chemo plan (dose and/or schedule) to allow you time to recover. Sometimes, you might be given supportive medicines to help your body recover more quickly. Again, the key is to give enough chemo to kill the cancer cells without causing other serious problems.
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Article Source: www.cancer.org

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Learn the basics about getting chemotherapy and important safety precautions you need to consider to protect your health and those you live with.
The place you get your treatment depends on which chemotherapy (chemo) drugs you’re getting, the drug doses, your hospital’s policies, your insurance coverage, what you prefer, and what your doctor recommends.
You may get chemotherapy:
★ At home
★ In your doctor’s office
★ In a clinic
★ In a hospital’s outpatient infusion center
★ In a hospital
Some of these settings may have private treatment rooms, while others treat many patients together in one large room. Ask your doctor or nurse about this ahead of time so you know what to expect your first day.
How often you get chemo and how long your treatment lasts depend on the kind of cancer you have, the goals of the treatment, the drugs being used, and how your body responds to them.
You may get treatments daily, weekly, or monthly, but they’re usually given in on-and-off cycles. This means, for example, that you may get chemo the first 2 weeks and then have a week off, making it a cycle that will start over every 3 weeks. The time off lets your body build healthy new cells and regain its strength.
Your cancer care team can tell you how many cycles are planned and how long they expect your treatment to last.
Many people wonder how long the actual drugs stay in their body and how they’re removed. Your kidneys and liver break down most chemo drugs which then leave your body through urine or stool. How long it takes your body to get rid of the drugs depends on many things, including the type of chemo you get, other medicines you take, your age, and how well your kidneys and liver work. Your cancer care team will tell you if you need to take any special precautions because of the drugs you are getting.
If your cancer comes back, you might have chemo again. This time, you could be given different drugs to relieve symptoms or to slow the cancer’s growth or spread. Side effects might be different, depending on the drugs, the doses, and how they’re given.
Through a Vein:
Most chemotherapy drugs are put right into your bloodstream through a tiny, soft, plastic tube called a catheter. A needle is used to put the catheter into a vein in your forearm or hand; then the needle is taken out, leaving the catheter behind. This is called intravenous or IV treatment. Intravenous drugs are given in these ways:
1. The drugs can be given quickly through the catheter right from a syringe over a few minutes. This is called an IV push.
2. An IV infusion can last from a few minutes to a few hours. A mixed drug solution flows from a plastic bag through tubing that’s attached to the catheter. The flow is often controlled by a machine called an IV pump.
3. Continuous infusions are sometimes needed and can last from 1 to 7 days. These are always controlled by electronic IV pumps.
The needles and catheters can scar and damage veins with ongoing chemo. Another option is a central venous catheter (CVC). A CVC is a bigger catheter that’s put into a large vein in the chest or arm. It stays in as long as you’re getting treatment so you won’t need to be stuck with a needle each time. Different kinds of CVCs are available.
Many people talk about CVC options with their doctor even before starting treatment. Some find out during treatment that they need a CVC because their hand and arm veins aren’t going to last to complete the planned chemo. Your doctor can help you decide if you need a CVC and the right type of CVC for you.
By Mouth:
You swallow the chemo as a pill, capsule, or liquid – just like other medicines. This chemo can often be taken at home. If you take chemo drugs by mouth, it’s very important to take the exact dosage, at the right time, for as long as you’re supposed to do so. For more, please see Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know.
Intrathecal or IT:
IT chemo is put into the spinal canal and goes into the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord to reach cancer cells there. This fluid is called the cerebrospinal fluid or CSF. This is important because most chemo drugs delivered by IV or by mouth are unable to reach the brain due to the blood-brain barrier.
Chemo can be delivered to the CSF through a needle placed in the spinal area, or a long-term catheter and port that can be put under the skin on your head during surgery. This port is called an Ommaya reservoir. The Ommaya is a small drum-like device with a small tube attached to it. The tube goes into the CSF in a cavity of your brain. The Ommaya stays in place under your scalp until treatment is done.
Intra-arterial:
In this use, the chemo drug is put right into the main artery that supplies blood to the tumor to treat a single area (such as the liver, an arm, or leg). This method helps limit the effect the drug has on other parts of the body and is called regional chemo.
Intracavitary:
Chemo drugs may be given through a catheter into an enclosed area of the body such as the abdomen (this is called intraperitoneal chemo) or chest (called intrapleural chemo).
Intramuscular or IM:
The drug is put in through a needle into a muscle (as an injection or shot).
Intralesional:
A needle is used to put the drug right into a tumor. It’s only possible when the tumor can be safely reached with a needle.
Intravesical:
The chemo is put right into the bladder through a soft catheter. It stays in for a few hours and is then drained out, and the catheter is removed.
Topical:
The drug is put right on an area of cancer on the skin as a cream, gel, or ointment.
Your chemo can take anywhere from a few minutes to many hours. Make sure you eat something before treatment. Most people find that a light meal or snack an hour or so before chemo works best. If you’ll be there several hours, plan ahead and bring a small meal or snacks in an insulated bag or cooler. Find out if there’s a refrigerator or microwave you can use.
Can I be around my family and friends while I’m getting chemo?
Most chemo drugs make you less able to fight Infection, but there are ways you can avoid them.
★ Stay away from anyone who is sick.
★ Wash your hands often, especially before touching your face, nose, mouth, or eyes. Ask your family and friends to do the same when they are with you.
★ Very few treatments require you to avoid close contact with loved ones for a short amount of time. If this is something you’ll have to do, your doctor will tell you about it when going over treatment options.
★ Make sure your vaccinations are up to date. The flu shot is especially important because people with cancer are at high risk of serious flu complications. Your health care provider will recommend which vaccines you need.
★ Infections can be picked up from food and drinks. So, Food Safety is very important when your immune system is weak. Talk to your cancer care team about whether you need to follow a special diet during your cancer treatment.
★ Some Pets can also transmit infections. So be sure to keep them healthy and take precautions when you’re around them.
How can I protect myself and those I live with while I’m getting chemo?
There are many things you can do during and after chemo to keep yourself and your loved ones from being affected by the chemo drugs while your body is getting rid of them. It takes about 48 hours for your body to break down and/or get rid of most chemo drugs.
Most of the waste comes out in your body fluids – urine, stool, tears, and vomit. The drugs are also in your blood. When chemo drugs get outside your body, they can harm or irritate skin – yours or even other people’s. Keep in mind that this means toilets can be a hazard for children and pets, and it’s important to be careful. Talk to your cancer care team about these and any other precautions you should follow.
During – and for 48 hours after – chemo:
★ Flush the toilet twice after you use it. Put the lid down before flushing to avoid splashing. If possible, you may want to use a separate toilet during this time. If this is not possible, wear gloves to clean the toilet seat after each use.
★ Both men and women should sit on the toilet to use it. This cuts down on splashing.
★ Always wash your hands with warm water and soap after using the toilet. Dry your hands with paper towels and throw them away.
★ If you vomit into the toilet, clean off all splashes and flush twice. If you vomit into a bucket or basin, carefully empty it into the toilet without splashing the contents and flush twice. Wash out the bucket with hot, soapy water and rinse it; empty the wash and rinse water into the toilet, then flush. Dry the bucket with paper towels and throw them away.
★ Caregivers should wear 2 pairs of throw-away gloves if they need to touch any of your body fluids. (These can be bought in most drug stores.) They should always wash their hands with warm water and soap afterward – even if they had gloves on.
★ If a caregiver does come in contact with any of your body fluids, they should wash the area very well with warm water and soap. It’s not likely to cause any harm, but try to avoid this. At your next visit, let your doctor know this happened. Being exposed often may lead to problems, and extra care should be taken to avoid this.
★ Any clothes or sheets that have body fluids on them should be washed in your washing machine – not by hand. Wash them in warm water with regular laundry detergent. Do not wash them with other clothes. If they can’t be washed right away, seal them in a plastic bag.
★ If using throw-away adult diapers, underwear, or sanitary pads, seal them in 2 plastic bags and throw them away with your regular trash.
Find out further information
Article Source: www.cancer.org

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Chemotherapy is the use of medication (chemicals) to treat disease. More specifically, chemotherapy typically refers to the destruction of cancer cells. However, chemotherapy may also include the use of antibiotics or other medications to treat any illness or infection.
This article concentrates on chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Cytotoxic medication prevents cancer cells from dividing and growing. When health care professionals talk about chemotherapy today, they generally tend to refer more to cytotoxic medication than others.
Find out further information
Article Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com

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The use of chemotherapy to treat cancer began at the start of the 20th century with attempts to narrow the universe of chemicals that might affect the disease by developing methods to screen chemicals using transplantable tumors in rodents. It was, however, four World War II–related programs, and the effects of drugs that evolved from them, that provided the impetus to establish in 1955 the national drug development effort known as the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center. The ability of combination chemotherapy to cure acute childhood leukemia and advanced Hodgkin's disease in the 1960s and early 1970s overcame the prevailing pessimism about the ability of drugs to cure advanced cancers, facilitated the study of adjuvant chemotherapy, and helped foster the national cancer program. Today, chemotherapy has changed as important molecular abnormalities are being used to screen for potential new drugs as well as for targeted treatments. [Cancer Res 2008;68(21):8643–53]
In the early 1900s, the famous German chemist Paul Ehrlich set about developing drugs to treat infectious diseases. He was the one who coined the term “chemotherapy” and defined it as the use of chemicals to treat disease. He was also the first person to document the effectiveness of animal models to screen a series of chemicals for their potential activity against diseases, an accomplishment that had major ramifications for cancer drug development. In 1908, his use of the rabbit model for syphilis led to the development of arsenicals to treat this disease. Ehrlich was also interested in drugs to treat cancer, including aniline dyes and the first primitive alkylating agents, but apparently was not optimistic about the chance for success. The laboratory where this work was done had a sign over the door that read, “Give up all hope oh ye who enter.”
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Surgery and radiotherapy dominated the field of cancer therapy into the 1960s until it became clear that cure rates after ever more radical local treatments had plateaued at about 33% due to the presence of heretofore-unappreciated micrometastases and new data showed that combination chemotherapy could cure patients with various advanced cancers. The latter observation opened up the opportunity to apply drugs in conjunction with surgery and/or radiation treatments to deal with the issue of micrometastases, initially in breast cancer patients, and the field of adjuvant chemotherapy was born. Combined modality treatment, the tailoring of each of the three modalities so their antitumor effect could be maximized with minimal toxicity to normal tissues, then became standard clinical practice
The Early Period of Cancer Drug Development...read more
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Facts | Causes | Symptoms | Research
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is a common, lethal, and preventable disease.
CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes, accounting for 10 to 11 percent of cancer deaths overall; it is third most common in men and women separately. Approximately one in three people who develop CRC die of this disease.
Who gets bowel cancer, Where it starts and How common it is
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Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). A cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Signs and symptoms may include blood in the stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss, and feeling tired all the time.
Most colorectal cancers are due to old age and lifestyle factors with only a small number of cases due to underlying genetic disorders. Some risk factors include diet, obesity, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Dietary factors that increase the risk include red and processed meat as well as alcohol. Another risk factor is inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Some of the inherited genetic disorders that can cause colorectal cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer; however, these represent less than 5% of cases. It typically starts as a benign tumor, often in the form of a polyp, which over time becomes cancerous.
Diagram of the lower gastrointestinal tract
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Bowel cancer may be diagnosed by obtaining a sample of the colon during a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. This is then followed by medical imaging to determine if the disease has spread. Screening is effective for preventing and decreasing deaths from colorectal cancer. Screening is recommended starting from the age of 50 to 75. During colonoscopy, small polyps may be removed if found. If a large polyp or tumor is found, a biopsy may be performed to check if it is cancerous. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk. Their general use is not recommended for this purpose, however, due to side effects.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer
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Treatments used for colorectal cancer may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Cancers that are confined within the wall of the colon may be curable with surgery while cancer that has spread widely are usually not curable, with management being directed towards improving quality of life and symptoms. Five year survival rates in the United States are around 65%. This, however, depends on how advanced the cancer is, whether or not all the cancer can be removed with surgery, and the person's overall health. Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer making up about 10% of all cases. In 2012, there were 1.4 million new cases and 694,000 deaths from the disease. It is more common in developed countries, where more than 65% of cases are found. It is less common in women than men... read more
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Bowel cancer means cancer that starts in the colon (large bowel) or back passage (rectum). It is also known as colorectal cancer.
Both men and women can get bowel cancer. Most people are aged 50 or over when they are diagnosed.
The risk of developing bowel cancer depends on many factors, including:
★ Age
★ Genetics and family history
★ Medical conditions such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
★ Diet and lifestyle factors
★ Radiation
Find out more about the risks and causes of bowel cancer
The colon is the first part of the large bowel. It is about 5 feet long and has 4 sections. Cancer can develop in any of these.
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The parts of the colon are the:
Ascending colon – runs up the right side of the abdomen. It is connected to the small intestine by a section of bowel called the caecum
Transverse colon – runs across the body from right to left, under the stomach
Descending colon – runs down the left side of the abdomen
Sigmoid colon – an 'S' shaped bend that joins the descending colon to the back passage
Rectal cancer starts in the last part of the large bowel (the back passage). This part of the bowel stores poo (stool) until it is ready to be passed out of the body.
Rectal cancer is also called cancer of the rectum.
The bowel walls are made up of several layers of body tissues. Bowel cancers start in the innermost layer – the lining.
Most begin as a small growth called a polyp or adenoma. If left untreated, they might become cancerous and grow into the muscle layers under the lining of the bowel and then through the bowel wall.
The cancer can then spread into organs that are close to the bowel, such as the bladder, womb or prostate gland.
Doctors think most bowel cancers take 5 to 10 years or more to develop.
Bowel cancer can spread to another part of the body through the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is made up of lymph nodes, which are part of the body’s immune system. One of the first places bowel cancer spreads is to the lymph nodes in the tummy (abdomen).
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Bowel cancer can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. The liver is a common place for colorectal cancer to spread because blood flows directly from the bowel to the liver. The cancer can also spread into the lung or bone but this is less common.
How common it is
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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Find out about possible symptoms of bowel cancer and when to see your doctor.
Both men and women can get bowel cancer. Most people are aged 50 or over when they are diagnosed.
The symptoms of bowel (colorectal) cancer can include:
★ Bleeding from the back passage (rectum) or blood in your poo
★ A change in your normal bowel habit
★ A lump that your doctor can feel in your back passage or tummy (abdomen), more commonly on the right side
★ A feeling of needing to strain in your back passage (as if you need to poo), even after opening your bowels
★ Losing weight
★ Pain in your abdomen or back passage
★ Tiredness and breathlessness caused by a lower than normal level of red blood cells (anaemia)
Bowel obstruction
Sometimes cancer can block the bowel. This is called a bowel obstruction. The symptoms include:
★ Griping pains in the abdomen
★ Feeling bloated
★ Constipation and being unable to pass wind
★ Being sick
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All the symptoms mentioned above can be caused by other conditions. Many of these are much less serious than cancer, such as piles (haemorrhoids), infections or inflammatory bowel disease. If you are young and have bleeding from the back passage with itching and soreness, you are much more likely to have piles than bowel cancer.
Find out more about bowel obstruction
Blood in poo (stools or faeces) can be a sign of bowel cancer. But more often it is due to other causes. See your GP if you are worried about any symptoms that you think could be caused by cancer in the bowel.
Most often, blood in the stool is from piles (haemorrhoids), especially if it is bright red, fresh blood. Piles are like swollen veins in the back passage. These veins are fragile and can easily get damaged when you pass a bowel motion, causing a little bleeding.
Blood from higher up in the bowel doesn't look bright red. It goes dark red or black and can make your bowel motions look like tar. This type of bleeding can be a sign of cancer higher up the bowel. Or it could be from a bleeding stomach ulcer for example.
It is important to go to your doctor if you have any bleeding and get checked.
Your doctor won't think you are wasting their time with this sort of symptom. You will almost certainly have a rectal examination. This means the doctor puts a gloved finger into your back passage and feels for anything abnormal.
You will need to go to the hospital for bowel cancer tests if your doctor can't feel anything abnormal, or feels a lump that might be cancer.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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Bowel cancer can start in the large bowel (colon) or the back passage (rectum). It is also divided into different types depending on the type of cell that your cancer started in. Knowing this helps your doctor decide which treatment you need.
Adenocarcinomas start in the gland cells in the lining of the bowel wall. The gland cells normally produce mucus. This is a slimy substance that makes it easier for the poo (also called faeces or stool) to pass through the bowel. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of bowel cancer.
There are 2 rare types of adenocarcinoma:
★ Mucinous tumours
★ Signet ring tumours
They are treated in the same way as the most common types of adenocarcinoma of the bowel.
Squamous cell tumours
Squamous cells are the skin cells that make up the bowel lining, together with the gland cells. They are treated in the same way as cancer of the anus.
Carcinoid tumours
Carcinoid is a type of slow growing tumour called a neuroendocrine tumour. They grow in hormone producing tissue, usually in the digestive system.
Carcinoid is treated differently to the most common types of bowel cancer.
Sarcomas
Sarcomas are cancers of the supporting cells of the body, such as bone or muscle. Most sarcomas in the bowel are called leiomyosarcomas. This means they are sarcomas that started in smooth muscle.
Sarcomas are treated differently to adenocarcinomas of the bowel.
Lymphomas
Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system. They are treated very differently to other bowel cancers.
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Find out what causes bowel cancer, including lifestyle factors and other medical conditions, and see what you can do to reduce your risk.
We don’t know what causes most bowel cancers. But there are some factors that may increase your risk of developing it.
The actual cause of colon cancer is the rapid growth of altered cells (cancerous cells). Other common causes vary from person to person depending on several factors. However, there are certain risk factors everyone should be aware of.
Age
Bowel cancer is more common in older people. Almost 6 in 10 bowel cancer cases in the UK each year are diagnosed in people aged 70 or over.
Family history and genetics
Your risk of bowel cancer is increased if you have a first degree relative diagnosed with bowel cancer. A first degree relative is a parent, brother or sister, son or daughter.
The risk is increased further if you have more than one relative diagnosed with bowel cancer. Or you have a first degree relative diagnosed at a young age, for example, under the age of 45 years old.
Talk to your GP if you think you have a strong family history of bowel cancer. They might refer you to a genetics clinic appropriate. A geneticist carries out a detailed assessment and can confirm whether people need screening or genetic testing.
Inherited conditions
There are some rare inherited conditions or syndromes associated with certain gene changes. Family members have an increased risk of bowel cancer if they inherit these gene changes.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is one of these conditions. FAP is responsible for less than 1 in 100 cases (1%) of all bowel cancers. If left untreated, all individuals with this syndrome will almost certainly develop bowel cancer by their 40s.
Specialists recommend that people with FAP have bowel surgery in their 20s. They have their colon removed to prevent the development of bowel cancer.
Another condition is Lynch syndrome, or hereditary non polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). People with this gene fault have a higher risk of getting bowel cancer and other cancers.
The BRCA1 gene fault increases the risk of breast cancer in those who have it. This gene might also increase the risk of bowel cancer in women under 50.
People with an Ashkenazi Jewish background have a higher risk of bowel cancer. This might be due to a gene fault that is more common in this group. Around 6 in 100 Ashkenazi Jews (6%) have a faulty gene called I1307K. BRCA1 is also common in Ashkenazi Jews.
People with gene changes that increase bowel cancer risk might need screening more often than the general population.
Find out more about screening for people with a high risk of bowel cancer
Benign polyps in the bowel
Growths in the bowel, called polyps or adenomas, are not cancerous. But they can develop into cancer over a long period of time. In fact, most bowel cancers develop from an adenoma. Adenomas are quite common. Around a third of the population will have at least one polyp by age 60. But only a small fraction of adenomas develop into cancer and it takes years to happen.
The bowel cancer screening programmes in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland aim to find and remove polyps in the general population before they become cancerous.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic bowel diseases causing inflammation in the bowel. Having either of these diseases for many years increases your risk of bowel cancer by up to 70%.
Find out more about screening people with a history of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
Previous cancer
You have an increased risk of developing another bowel cancer if you have already had a bowel cancer in the past. Your specialist will talk to you about how often you may need screening.
You might have a slightly increased risk of getting bowel cancer if you have had certain cancers in the past. Studies have shown an increased risk of bowel cancer for individuals who have had:
★ Lymphoma
★ Oesophageal cancer
★ Kidney cancer
★ Bladder cancer
★ Breast cancer
★ Cancer of the uterus (womb cancer)
★ Cervical cancer
★ Head and neck cancer
★ Prostate cancer
This might be due to genetic changes or an effect of the treatment for the first cancer. In some cases, it may be due to shared risk factors such as smoking or being overweight.
Radiation
X-radiation and gamma radiation are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as causes of colon cancer. There is limited evidence to say radiation causes rectal cancer.
Around 2 in 100 cases (2%) of bowel cancer in the UK are linked to radiation exposure. Some of these cases are due to radiotherapy treatment for previous cancer. The rest are linked to radiation used in tests such as x-rays and CT scans (diagnostic radiation) and background radiation.
Medical conditions
If you have diabetes, your pancreas doesn't make enough of a hormone called insulin. People with diabetes have an increased risk of bowel cancer. We don't know why this is and scientists are looking into it.
The risk of rectal cancer is increased in people with gallstones compared to those without. Also, people with gallstones have double the risk of developing polyps in the large bowel (colon) compared to those without gallstones.
People with acromegaly also have an increased risk of bowel cancer, although studies are still trying to find out why. Acromegaly is a condition where the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone and causes an overgrowth of bones, especially in the face.
Infections
The risk of bowel cancer is higher in people who have Human papilloma virus (HPV) or helicobacter pylori (H pylori). HPV is a common virus, and there are many different types. H pylori is a bacteria which causes stomach ulcers. Both are common infections which many people have. Most do not develop into cancer.
Studies are still looking into why some of these infections turn into cancer and why others don't.
Find out more about HPV and cancer
Alcohol and cancer
Alcohol increases the risk of bowel cancer. It has been estimated that about 1 out of 10 bowel cancers (10%) in the UK are linked to drinking alcohol.
Find out more about alcohol and cancer
Smoking and cancer
Around 1 out of 10 bowel cancers (10%) in the UK is linked to smoking. The risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked a day.
It is never too late to stop smoking but the sooner you stop the better.
Find out more about smoking and cancer
Bodyweight and cancer
Obesity is a cause of bowel cancer. It is estimated that 13 out of 100 bowel cancers (13%) in the UK are linked to being overweight or obese.
Obesity means being very overweight with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. And being overweight is a BMI of between 25 and 30. The risk of bowel cancer is a third (33%) higher in people who are obese compared to those who have a healthy BMI.
Find out more about bodyweight and cancer
Try to keep a healthy weight by being physically active and eating a healthy, balanced diet. There is strong evidence which shows that people who are more physically active have a lower risk of bowel cancer.
Find out how physical activity prevents cancer
Diet and cancer
It is very difficult to research the link between diet and cancer. Scientists need to carry out very large studies to see which specific foods might reduce the risk of cancer, and which could raise the risk.
Eating too much red and processed meat
The role of some parts of our diet remain unknown or uncertain. But researchers can be more certain about the link between red and processed meat and bowel cancer.
Many studies have shown that eating lots of red and processed meat increases the risk of bowel cancer. It is estimated that around 1 in 5 bowel cancers in the UK are linked to eating these meats.
The government recommends that people eating more than 90g of red and processed meat a day should reduce it to 70g or less. 70g is the cooked weight. This is about the same as 2 sausages.
Eating too little fibre
Bowel cancer is less common in people who eat lots of fibre. You can boost the fibre in your diet by choosing wholegrain foods such as whole wheat pasta. Or fruit and vegetables high in fibre, such as peas and raspberries.
It might help to swap red meat for chicken or fish. Or use beans and pulses in meals instead of meat.
Find out more about diet and cancer
Other possible causes
Stories about potential causes are often in the media and it isn’t always clear which ideas are supported by evidence. There might be things you have heard of that we haven’t included here. This is because either there is no evidence about them or it is less clear.
Find out more about possible causes and cancer controversies
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You usually start by seeing your GP. They will ask you about your general health and symptoms and will also examine you. This might include an examination of your back passage (rectum). Your doctor will then decide whether to do tests or refer you to a specialist.
See your doctor if you notice a change that isn't normal for you or if you have any of the possible signs and symptoms of cancer.
Even if you're worrying about what the symptom might be, you shouldn't delay seeing them. Your worry is unlikely to go away if you don't make an appointment. It might not be cancer. But if it is, the earlier it is picked up the more likely it is that it can be treated successfully. You won't be wasting your doctor's time.
Try not to be embarrassed. What you tell your GP is confidential. Doctors are used to discussing intimate problems and will try to put you at ease.
It can be difficult to remember everything you want to say and ask when you see the doctor. These tips will help you get the most out of your appointment.
Tips:
Ultrasound of the back passage (rectum) is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if ★ Write down your symptoms including when they started, when they happen and how often you have them.
★ Write down if anything makes them worse or better.
★ Tell your GP if you are worried about cancer in particular.
★ Bring a friend or relative along for support - they could also ask questions and help you remember what the GP says.
★ Ask the GP to explain anything you don’t understand.
★ Ask the GP to write things down for you if you think this might help.
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms
★ What they are
★ When you get them
★ Whether anything makes them better or worse
They will also ask you about your general health.
Your GP may examine your back passage (rectum). This is called a rectal examination. They do this by putting a gloved finger into your back passage and feeling for any lumps or swelling.
Your GP may do some blood tests to see:
★ If you have low levels of red blood cells (anaemia)
★ How well you liver and kidneys are working
★ Do I need to see a specialist? Is it urgent?
★ When will I see them?
★ Will I find out about my appointments by post or telephone?
★ Do I need tests? What will they involve?
★ How long should I expect to wait?
★ Where can I find out more about tests?
★ Do I have to do anything in preparation for this test?
★ When will I get the results and who will tell me?
If they don't think you need any tests or a referral
★ Can you explain to me why I don’t need to have tests or see a specialist?
★ Is there anything I can do to help myself?
★ Do I need to see you again?
★ Who do I contact if my symptoms continue or get worse, particularly if it’s during the night or at weekends?
Depending on your symptoms, your GP can arrange some hospital tests, such as:
Sigmoidoscopy
Colonoscopy
CT colonography (virtual colonsocopy)
Barium enema
Make sure you know what happens next. Make another appointment if your symptoms don’t clear up, or if they change or get worse.
You can book an appointment online at most GP surgeries, telephone them or go in person. You don’t have to tell the receptionist what you want to see the doctor for.
Try different times of the day if it's difficult to get through by phone. Your surgery might have a clinic you can turn up to and wait to see a doctor. You might have to wait a long time but you’ll see a doctor that day.
If it’s difficult to get to the surgery, check whether your practice has telephone appointments with a doctor. They’ll tell you if you need to go into see them at the surgery.
Accept a booked appointment, even if you think it’s a long time to wait. You could ask about cancellations if you are able to get to the practice at short notice.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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Find out when GPs refer people to see a bowel cancer specialist. Your GP should arrange for you to see a specialist within 2 weeks if you have symptoms that could be due to bowel cancer. This is called an urgent referral.
It can be hard for GPs to decide who may have cancer and who might have a more minor condition. For some symptoms, your doctor may ask you to wait to see if the symptoms get better or respond to treatment, such as antibiotics.
There are guidelines for GPs to help them decide who needs a referral.
Your GP should refer you if:
★ You are over 40, with unexplained weight loss and tummy (abdominal) pain
★ You are over 50, and have unexplained bleeding from your back passage (rectum)
★ You are over 60, and have low iron levels in your blood (anaemia) or change in your bowel habit
★ You test results show hidden blood in your poo
★ You have a lump or swelling in your back passage or tummy (abdomen)
★ You are under 50, with bleeding from your back passage, with either tummy pain, weight loss, low iron levels or weight loss.
If you do not have bleeding from your back passage, your GP should offer a test checking for hidden blood if:
★ You are over 50, and have unexplained pain in your abdomen or weight loss
★ You are under 60, with changes to bowel habits or low iron levels
★ You are over 60, and have low iron levels
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A different types of

You might have one or more of these tests. The hospital doctor might also do an examination of your back passage (rectum) called a digital rectal examination. Wearing gloves, your doctor will feel inside your rectum using their finger.

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How you have it and what happens after it.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy looks inside the lower part of your large bowel. It is also called bowel scope or flexi sig. You usually have this test in the endoscopy department in a hospital. It takes up to 15 minutes. But you should expect to be at the hospital for about 2 hours.
There are a number of reasons you might have a flexible sigmoidoscopy, including:
★ To help find the cause of your bowel symptoms
★ To check a condition that you have been diagnosed with in the past
★ To look for early signs of cancer as part of the bowel cancer screening programme
Before your test
Your bowel needs to be empty for a flexible sigmoidoscopy.
In preparation for the test:
★ You might need to have a small enema to help you empty your bowel - you might be given it to do at home or have it when you get to hospital
★ You usually can't eat or drink after the enema - sometimes you can have clear fluids (water, black tea or coffee) before the test
★ nstead of an enema, you might need to drink a liquid bowel preparation (laxative) and follow a special diet for a couple of days before the test
You should get written instructions before your test about what you need to do.
What happens
When you arrive at the hospital you change into a hospital gown. You might also wear paper shorts with an opening at the back.
You lie on a narrow bed, on your left side, with your knees bent. You don't normally need drugs to make you drowsy (sedation) while you have the test.
The doctor or specialist nurse gently puts the colonoscope into your back passage and up into the large bowel. This is uncomfortable, but is not usually painful. If you find it too uncomfortable at any stage tell the doctor or nurse and they will stop.
You might have pain relief using gas and air (Entonox). This is a fast acting pain relief breathed in through a mouth piece.
Having a flexible sigmoidoscopy
The doctor or nurse puts a small amount of gas through the colonoscope into your bowel. The gas expands the bowel so they can see the lining of the bowel clearly. This can make you feel bloated.
Photographs of your bowel lining are taken. If the doctor or nurse sees any abnormal areas they will take tissue samples (biopsies). If you have any growths in the bowel lining (polyps), they can be removed with a wire loop put down the colonoscope. The samples are sent to the laboratory to be checked by a pathologist.
After the test
You can usually go home after the test. You can eat and drink as usual.
You might feel bloated and have mild cramping pain after the test. This is due to the gas that goes into the bowel. The discomfort should pass after a couple of hours. Walking around, warm drinks, and peppermint water may help you to pass wind.
Getting your results
Biopsy results are usually back within 2 weeks. You get your results from your specialist. If your GP referred you for tests, they also get a copy of your results.
Waiting for biopsy results can be an anxious time. Ask your doctor how long you should expect to wait for your results.
If you haven't heard anything a couple of weeks after your test, contact your doctor to chase up the results for you.
Possible risks
Flexible sigmoidoscopy is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having a sigmoidoscopy outweigh any possible risks.
After having a biopsy or polyp removed, you might have some bleeding. This is usually a small amount, and stops on it's own within a couple of days. Rarely, you might need a blood transfusion or surgery to stop the bleeding.
Very rarely there is a small tear in the bowel wall. If this happens you need surgery to repair the tear.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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How you have it and what happens after it.
A colonoscopy looks at the whole of the inside of the large bowel. A doctor or nurse (colonoscopist) uses a flexible tube called a colonoscope. The tube has a small light and camera at one end. The colonoscopist puts the tube into your back passage and passes it along the bowel. They can see pictures of the inside of your bowel on a TV monitor.
You may have a colonoscopy to:
★ Help find the cause of your bowel symptoms
★ Look for early signs of bowel cancer as part of the national screening programme, or if you are at high risk of bowel cancer
★ Monitor you after treatment for bowel cancer
Before your test
You need to have an empty bowel for the test. So the colonoscopist can clearly see the inside of your bowel.
You need to take medications (laxatives) to empty your bowel the day before your test.
The hospital might ask you to eat a low fibre diet for 1 or 2 days before the test. It is very important to drink plenty of clear fluids.
This includes:
★ Water
★ Black tea or coffee
★ Squash (not with red or purple colouring)
★ Clear soup
After taking the laxatives you might need the toilet often and very suddenly. You may have some cramps. It is sensible to stay at home for a few hours after taking laxatives so that you are near a toilet.
If you take iron tablets or other medicines that can make you constipated, you might need to stop these for 1 week before the test.
What happens
You usually have a colonoscopy as an outpatient in the endoscopy department at the hospital. You wear a hospital gown and might also wear paper shorts with an opening at the back.
You are offered medicine to make you drowsy (sedation) and painkillers. You have these as injections into a small tube (cannula) in your vein. Some hospitals use gas and air (Entonox). This is a fast acting pain relief breathed in through a mouth piece.
Lying on your left side, you draw your knees up towards your chest. The colonoscope goes into your back passage (rectum) and passes into your bowel. The tube bends easily so it can pass around the curves in your bowel. The colonoscopist puts a small bit of gas into your bowel. This makes it easier to see all of the bowel lining.
Photographs of the bowel lining are taken. The doctor or nurse can remove tissue samples (biopsies). If they see any growths (polyps) they remove them with a small wire loop put down the colonoscope. You might also have a dye sprayed onto the lining of the bowel to show up any abnormal areas. This is called chromoscopy.
Colonoscopies can be uncomfortable but shouldn't be painful.
After your test
You go to a recovery area to rest if you have had sedation. Your nurse monitors you. They offer you a snack and drink when you are ready. You might be in the recovery area for a couple of hours.
You shouldn't drive or drink alcohol for 24 hours after having a sedative. You need someone to take you home from hospital.
You might have bloating and cramping pains after the test. This is due to the gas that goes into your bowel. It normally gets back to normal after a few hours.
Getting your results
Before you go home, your doctor tells you if they removed any growths (polyps) or tissue samples (biopsies) from your bowel.
The biopsy results can take up to 2 weeks. Your specialist gives you the results. If your GP referred you for the test, they should also receive a copy. Contact your doctor if you haven’t heard anything after a couple of weeks.
Waiting for biopsy results can be an anxious time. It might be helpful to talk to someone close to you.
Possible risks
Colonoscopy is a very safe procedure. But your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems afterwards. Your doctors make sure the benefits of having a colonoscopy outweigh any possible risks.
There is a risk of bleeding if you have polyps removed or biopsies taken. This is usually a small amount and stops on its own. Rarely, you might need a blood transfusion or surgery to stop the bleeding.
Very rarely, there can be a small tear (perforation) of the bowel. You would need surgery to repair the tear.
There is a risk that you might react to the sedation drug. It can cause temporary difficulty with breathing. But this is rare. It is easily treated by giving you oxygen through a small plastic tube into your nose. Your nurse monitors you closely.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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How you have it and what happens after it.
CT (computed tomography) colonography is a test that uses CT scans to check the large bowel (colon). It is also called virtual colonography.
You have this test as an outpatient in the CT scanning (or radiology) department at the hospital. The test is done by a senior radiographer or specialist doctor (radiologist).
It usually takes around 30 minutes but you should expect to be in the department for about an hour or so.
Before your test
Your bowel needs to be empty before the test. You need to take strong medications (laxatives) to empty your bowel the day before the test. Or you might need to drink a special liquid (contrast medium) called gastrografin over 1 or 2 days.
Gastrografin is a type of dye containing iodine. It helps to make the scan pictures clearer. It also acts as a laxative and may give you diarrhoea.
Having gastrografin or laxatives will mean that you need to open your bowels often, and perhaps very suddenly. You might also have some cramping pains. It is sensible to stay at home for a few hours after taking gastrografin or laxatives so you are near a toilet.
You might need to follow a low fibre diet for 1 or 2 days before the test. It is important to drink plenty of clear fluids such as:
★ Water
★ Black tea or coffee
★ Squash (without red or purple colouring)
★ Clear soup
After taking the laxatives you might need the toilet often and very suddenly. You may have some cramps. It is sensible to stay at home for a few hours after taking laxatives so that you are near a toilet.
If you take iron tablets or other medicines that can make you constipated, you might need to stop these for 1 week before the test.
What happens
At the hospital you change into a gown. Your radiographer answers any questions that you have. You lie on a couch on your left hand side.
You might have an injection of medicine to relax the bowel muscles. You also have an injection of dye (contrast medium) at the same time. This helps to show up the bowel more clearly on the scans. You have the injections through a fine tube (cannula) in your vein.
Just before the test the radiographer puts a small tube a few centimetres into your back passage (rectum) to pump carbon dioxide or air inside. This opens the bowel, helping to get clear scans of the inside of your bowel. You might have some discomfort from the carbon dioxode or air. Rarely, people have pain.
The radiographer helps you lie on your back and the scanning table moves into the CT scanner. The middle part of your body is in the centre of the ring. You will be alone in the room while you have the scan. But they can still see you and talk to you through an intercom.
You often have a second scan lying on your front. At certain times the radiographer may ask you to hold your breath for a few seconds. It is important that you lie very still during the scan.
A computer matches the 2 scans and makes a virtual scan of the inside of your bowel.
After your test
Once the scan is finished, the radiographer removes the tube from your back passage, and shows you to the toilet. You may need to stay in the department for a short time after the test.
The radiographer will remove the fine tube in the vein and you can go home. You can usually eat and drink normally.
Getting your results
It can take 1 to 2 weeks to get your results. You usually get your results from your specialist. It is important to check with your doctor how long you should expect to wait for your results.
Waiting for results can be an anxious time. It might be helpful to talk to someone close to you.
If you have not had your results a few weeks after your test, you could contact your doctor to chase your results for you.
Possible risks
CT colonography is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having a CT colonography outweigh these possible risks.
Dehydration
Clearing the bowel can cause dehydration in some people. It is very important to drink plenty of fluids before and after your scan. Gastrografin can make people feel or be sick. It may cause a mild rash, or very rarely you can have an allergic reaction.
Effects of contrast medium
The injection of contrast medium might make you hot and flushed for a few minutes. You might get a metallic taste in your mouth. It is common to feel warmth like you are passing urine, but you are not. This feeling goes away quickly.
Very rarely, people have a reaction to the contrast medium. If you feel ill or have problems breathing during the test, tell the radiographer straight away.
Tummy (abdominal) pain
You may have some bloating or pain in your tummy (abdomen) after the test. This is due to the carbon dioxide or air put into the bowel. This should go away after a few hours.
Tear in your bowel
There is a small risk of a tear (perforation) in your bowel. This is very rare. If it happened you would need surgery to repair the tear.
Blurred vision
The medicine used to relax your bowel wall might cause temporary blurred vision. You shouldn't drive for an hour or so or until your vision has returned to normal. Tell your radiographer if you have glaucoma or heart problems.
Radiation exposure
CT scanners use x-rays to make images. You will be exposed to a small amount of radiation. You should not have CT colonography if there is a risk that you are pregnant.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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How you have it and what happens after it.
Barium is a white liquid that shows up clearly on an x-ray. It can show the outline of the food pipe (oesophagus), stomach and bowel. Once the barium is in the body it coats the lining of the organs. It shows up cancer as an irregular outline extending out from the wall of the affected part of the body. There are different types of barium test.
Barium enema looks at the large bowel (colon) and back passgae (rectum).
Before your test
Your bowel needs to be emptied for the test. The day before your test, you take laxatives to help you empty the bowel.
It is important to:
★ Drink lots of fluid the day before your test
★ Avoid any solid food on the day before your test
★ Avoid eating or drinking anything on the day of the test
What happens
You usually have a barium enema as an outpatient in the x-ray department of the hospital.
You change into a hospital gown and might be given paper shorts with an opening in the back.
In the x-ray room, you lie on the x-ray table on your left hand side.
The barium enema with water is put into your back passage (rectum) through a small plastic tube. You have to try and hold the liquid in your back passage.
The x-ray table might tilt and move during the test. As the table tilts, the barium spreads through the lower bowel and shows up any lumps or swellings, which can be seen on the screen. You might have some air put into the tube to inflate the bowel to get a clearer picture of the bowel. Most of the liquid barium drains back into the tube and is removed. During the test, you may have an injection of a drug to help relax the bowel.
The test takes about 40 minutes. Afterwards you might have some cramping pains. You might be a little constipated. Your first poo after the test will be white. This should go back to normal on it's own. It is important to drink plenty of water.
After your test
After your test you can go home.
Getting your results
After your barium enema it can take up to 2 weeks to get your results. Your specialist usually gives you the results. If your GP referred you for the tests, they might also receive a copy of your results.
Waiting for results can be an anxious time. It might be helpful to talk to someone close to you.
Barium enema is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having a barium enema outweigh these possible risks.
Possible risks
Radiation exposure
As you have x-rays as part of these tests, you are exposed to radiation. This is kept to a minimum. You cannot have this test if there is any possibility that you are pregnant.
Blurred vision
The injection that relaxes the bowel may cause temporary blurred vision. If this happens, you shouldn't drive until your eyesight has returned to normal. You may not have the injection if you have glaucoma (increased pressure in the eye), or heart problems.
Bowel perforation
Very rarely, barium enema might make a small tear in your bowel. This is called bowel perforation. You would need surgery to repair the tear.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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How you have it and what happens after it.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components (such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test) are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse. In some of the United States, a blood test is required before marriage.
Find out what a blood test is, how you have it and what happens after it. Blood tests can:
★ Check your general health, including your liver, kidneys and heart function
★ Check numbers of blood cells
★ Help diagnose cancer and other conditions
Preparing for a blood test
You can eat and drink eat normally before most blood tests. Your doctor will tell you if you need to stop eating or drinking before, and for how long. This is called fasting. Tests you might need to fast for include:
★ Glucose tests
★ Cholesterol tests
For tests that check the levels of particular substances in your blood, you might need to stop taking tablets, such as iron or thyroxine. Check with your doctor beforehand to see if you need to stop taking any tablets.
What happens
You sit or lie down to have the test. A nurse or person specialising in taking blood (phlebotomist) will select the best vein to use. This is usually from your hand or arm.
They put a tight band around your arm above the area where they take the sample. Then they put a small needle into your vein. Next they attach a syringe or small bottle to the needle to draw out some blood.
Once they have all of the samples they release the band around your arm. They take out the needle and put a cotton wool ball or small piece of gauze on the area. Pressing down on the cotton wool or gauze helps to stop bleeding or bruising.
They might be able to take the blood sample from a central line if you have one.
Look away when they're taking the sample if you prefer, and tell your nurse if you feel unwell.
Getting your results
Ask your doctor about when you’ll get your results, and who will give them to you. Some results may be available quickly (for example, full blood count). Some tumour marker and genetic tests may can take several weeks.
Blood tests are a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having a blood test outweigh these possible risks.
Full blood count
A full blood count measures the number of red cells, white cells and platelets in your blood.
★ Red cells carry oxygen around our bodies. Haemoglobin is the part of the cell that carries oxygen. If you have a low red cell count, your doctor might say you’re anaemic (pronounced a-nee-mic). This can make you feel tired, short of breath and dizzy.
★ White cells fight infections. There are several different types of white cells, including neutrophils and lymphocytes.
★ Platelets help clot the blood. Symptoms of a low platelet count include abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding gums and nosebleeds.
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There isn’t an exact range of normal for blood counts. The range of figures quoted as normal varies slightly and also differs between men and women.
Liver function tests (LFTs)
Liver function tests (LFTs) check how well your liver is working. LFTs look for levels of enzymes and proteins made by the liver.
They include:
★ Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
★ Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
★ Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
★ Gamma-glutamyl transferase (Gamma GT)
They might be raised if you have a blockage in your liver or bile duct, or if you drink a lot of alcohol.
LFTs also look at the amount of bilirubin in the blood. This is a chemical in bile.
Bilirubin can be raised if you have a problem with your liver or gallbladder. Bilirubin can cause yellowing of your skin and eyes (jaundice). And LFTs measure albumin. This is a protein that can be low in some types of cancer. You can also have low albumin if you’ve been eating small amounts and are malnourished.
Urea and electrolytes
These blood tests show how well your kindneys are working. Urea is a waste chemical produced from digesting protein.
Our kidneys remove urea from the blood and get rid of it in urine.
Electrolytes are substances such as sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate.
Tumour markers
Tumour markers are substances that either the tumour or your body produces as a response to a cancer. They’re usually proteins.
Some tumour markers are only produced by one type of cancer. Others can be made by several types.
Some markers are found in non cancerous conditions as well as cancer.
Doctors might use tumour markers to help diagnose a cancer.
If you have bowel cancer your doctor might test for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
Blood sampling (phlebotomy) is a safe test.
There is a possibility of:
Bleeding
You can bleed if you’re taking medicines to thin your blood (anticoagulants) such as aspirin. Pressing hard when the needle is removed helps to stop it.
Bruising
Sometimes blood leaks out of the vein and collects under your skin. This can look like a small dark swelling under the skin (haematoma).
Pressing hard once the needle is removed can help.
Pain
The site of the test can be tender for a few minutes. Tell the person taking the blood if you have a tingling or shooting pain.
Swelling (oedema)
Don’t have blood taken from an arm that is swollen or has a risk of swelling: for example, after surgery or radiotherapy to the lymph nodes on that side. Ask your nurse to use the opposite arm to take the sample.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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These tests find out the position of the cancer, how big it is and whether it has spread.

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How you have it and what happens afterwards.
A Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles and uses computer processing to create cross-sectional images, or slices, of the bones, blood vessels and soft tissues inside your body. CT scan images provide more detailed information than plain X-rays do.
How you have it
You usually have a CT scan in the x-ray (radiology) department as an outpatient. A radiographer operates the scanner. It can take about an hour and a half in total. Sometimes it takes longer depending on the preparation you need.
If you have cancer of the large bowel (colon), you are like to have a CT scan of your chest, tummy (abdomen), and the area between your hip bones (pelvis).
Preparing for your CT scan
A couple of hours before your scan you might need to stop eating and drinking. Tell your doctor if this is a problem for you, for example if you have diabetes.
Most people have a drink or an injection of contrast medium, or both. This is a dye that helps body tissues show up more clearly on the scan. Before you have the contrast medium, the radiographer asks you about any medical conditions or allergies. Some people are allergic to the dye.
The radiographer explains what to do if you need to drink the contrast. You usually drink a liquid slowly for about an hour before the scan.
Some people feel claustrophobic or closed in when they‘re having a scan. Tell the radiographers before your appointment if you think you’re likely to feel this way. They can take extra care to make sure you are comfortable and that you understand what’s going on. Your doctor can prescribe a medicine to relax you if you need it.
What happens
When you arrive at the scan department
The radiographer might ask you to change into a hospital gown. You’ll have to remove any jewellery and other metal objects, such as hair clips. Metal interferes with the images produced by the scanner.
In the scanning room
When you’re ready, the radiographer or assistant takes you into the scanning room. A CT scanning machine is large and shaped like a doughnut.
You might have an injection of contrast medium (a type of dye) through a small thin tube (cannula) in your arm. This can:
★ Make you feel hot and flushed for a minute or two
★ Give you a metallic taste in your mouth
★ Make you feel like you’re passing urine but you aren’t – this feeling is common and passes quickly
You can have a medicine to help you relax if you think you will feel claustrophobic during the scan.
Having the CT scan
You usually lie down on the machine couch on your back.
Once you’re in the right position on the couch, the radiographer leaves the room. They can see you on a TV screen or through a window from the control room. You can talk to each other through an intercom.
The couch slowly slides backwards and forwards through the hole of the scanner. The machine takes pictures as you move through it.
The scan is painless but can be uncomfortable because you have to stay still. Tell your radiographers if you’re getting stiff and need to move.
The 2-minute video shows what happens when you have a CT scan.
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During the scan
You’ll hear a whirring noise from the scanner that sounds a bit like a washing machine.
The radiographer might ask you to hold your breath at times.
When the scan is over, the radiographer comes back into the room and lowers the couch so you can get up.
After your CT scan
You stay in the department for about 15 to 30 minutes if you had an injection of the dye. This is in case it makes you feel unwell, which is rare.
The radiographer removes the tube from the vein in your arm before you go home.
You should be able to go home or back to work. You can eat and drink normally.
You need someone to take you home if you had medicine to help you relax. You won’t be able to drive for the rest of the day as it could make you drowsy.
Getting your results
You should get your results within 1 or 2 weeks.
Waiting for results can make you anxious. Ask your doctor or nurse how long it will take to get them. Contact the doctor who arranged the test if you haven’t heard anything after a couple of weeks.
You might have contact details for a specialist nurse and you can contact them for information if you need to. It may help to talk to a close friend or relative about how you feel.
Possible risks
A CT scan is a safe test for most people but like all medical tests it has some possible risks. Your doctor and radiographer make sure the benefits of having the test outweigh these risks.
Pregnant women should only have CT scans in emergencies. Contact the department as soon as you can before the scan if you are - or think you might be - pregnant.
Rarely, people have an allergic reaction to the contrast medium. This most often starts with weakness, sweating and difficulty breathing. Tell your radiographer immediately if you feel unwell so they can give you medicine.
Exposure to radiation during a CT scan can slightly increase your risk of developing cancer in the future. Talk to your doctor if this worries you.
There is a risk that the contrast medium will leak outside the vein. This can cause swelling and pain in your arm but it’s rare.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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How you have it and what happens after it.
A PET-CT scan combines a CT scan and a PET scan into one to give detailed information about your cancer. The CT scan takes a series of x-rays from all around your body. The PET scan uses a mildly radioactive drug to show up areas of your body where cells are more active than normal.
You’ll usually have a PET-CT scan in the x-ray (radiology) department as an outpatient. These scanners tend to be only in the major cancer hospitals. So you might have to travel to another hospital to have one. A radiographer operates the scanner. It usually takes between 30 and 60 minutes.
Preparing for your PET-CT scan
For most PET-CT scans, you need to stop eating about 6 hours beforehand. You can usually drink water during this time. You might have instructions not to do any strenuous exercise for 24 hours before the scan.
Call the number on your appointment letter if not eating is a problem for you, for example if you’re diabetic. You might need to adapt your diet and sugar control and your appointment time could change.
Some people feel claustrophobic when they‘re having a scan. Contact the department staff before your test if you’re likely to feel like this. They can take extra care to make sure you’re comfortable and that you understand what’s going on. And your doctor can arrange to give you medicine to help you relax, if needed.
What happens
When you arrive at the scan department
Your radiographer might ask you to change into a hospital gown. You have to remove any jewellery and other metal objects such as hair clips. Metal interferes with the images produced by the scanner.
You have an injection of a dye called a radiotracer about an hour before the scan. You have this injection through a small plastic tube called a cannula in your arm.
You need to rest and avoid moving too much during this hour. This allows the drug to spread through your body and into your tissues.
In the scanning room
Your radiographer takes you into the scanning room. The PET-CT machine is large and shaped like a doughnut.
You have most scans lying down on the machine couch on your back.
Once you’re in the right position, your radiographer leaves the room. They can see you on a TV screen or through a window from the control room. You can talk to each other through an intercom.
Having the PET-CT scan
The couch slowly slides backwards and forwards through the scanner. The machine takes pictures as you move through it.
The scan is painless but can be uncomfortable because you have to stay still. Tell your radiographer if you’re getting stiff and need to move.
It’s not particularly noisy but you’ll hear a constant background noise.
When it’s over, your radiographer will come back into the room and lower the couch so you can get up.
This 3-minute video shows you what happens when you have a PET-CT scan.
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After your PET-CT scan
Your radiographer removes the tube from your arm before you go home.
You can then eat and drink normally.
You’ll need someone to take you home if you’ve had medicine to help you relax. You won’t be able to drive for the rest of the day as you might be drowsy.
The radiotracer gives off very small levels of radiation that go away very quickly. But for the rest of the day you shouldn’t have close contact with pregnant women, babies and young children.
Getting your results
You should get your results within 1 or 2 weeks.
Waiting for results can make you anxious. Ask your doctor or nurse how long it will take to get them. Contact the doctor who arranged the test if you haven’t heard anything after a couple of weeks.
Possible risks
PET-CT is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having a PET-CT outweigh these possible risks.
Pregnancy
Pregnant women should only have the scan in an emergency. There’s a risk that the radiation could harm the baby. Contact the department as soon as you can before the scan if you are, or think you might be, pregnant.
The radiation in the radioactive tracer is very small. Drinking plenty of fluids after your scan will help to flush the drug out of your system.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Is cancer genetic/癌症是遗传吗?
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to generate images of the organs in the body.
How you have it and what happens after it.
MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. It uses magnetism and radio waves to create cross section pictures of the body. It produces pictures from angles all around the body and shows up soft tissues very clearly.
You usually have an MRI scan in the x-ray (radiology) department as an outpatient. It can take up to an hour and a half.
Preparing for your MRI scan
Before you go to your appointment, or when you arrive, you fill in a safety checklist. This asks about:
★ Any operations you’ve had
★ Whether you have any metal implants or other metals in your body
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An MRI scan uses strong magnetism which could affect any metal in your body. These include:
★ Pacemakers
★ Surgical clips, pins or plates
★ Cochlear implants (for deafness)
★ Metal fragments anywhere in your body – for example from an injury
You can have an MRI scan if you have some metals in your body, but your doctor and radiographer decide if it is safe for you. Tell the scanner staff about any metals in your body.
Some people feel claustrophobic or closed in when they’re having an MRI scan. Contact the department before your test if you’re likely to feel like this. The hospital staff can take extra care to make sure you’re comfortable and that you understand what’s going on. Your doctor can give you medicine to help you relax if you need it.
Eating, drinking and medicines
You might need to stop eating and drinking an hour or more before the scan. Talk to your doctor if this could be a problem, for example if you're diabetic.
You can usually take all your medicines as normal beforehand.
Some stick-on medicine patches contain metal and could overheat in the MRI scan, causing burns. Tell your radiographer beforehand if you use medicine patches. You might need to remove them before the scan.
What to expect
When you arrive at the scan department
The radiographer might ask you to change into a hospital gown. You may not have to undress if your clothing doesn’t have any metal, such as zips or clips.
You have to:
★ Remove any jewellery, including body piercings and your watch
★ Remove your hair clips
★ Empty your pockets of coins, keys and bank cards
It’s safe to take a relative or friend into the scanning room with you. But check with the department staff first. Your friend or relative has to remove any metal items.
In the scanning room
Your radiographer takes you into the scanning room. The MRI machine is large and shaped like a tube.
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You lie on a couch that can slide into the tube. You usually lie down on your back.
You might have an injection of a dye called contrast medium. This helps to show up your body’s organs more clearly. Some people are allergic to contrast medium, so your radiographer will ask about any medical conditions or allergies you have.
You have the injection through a small plastic tube (cannula) into a vein in your arm.
Tell the radiographer if you feel unwell at any point during or after your scan.
Having the MRI scan
You need to lie as still as possible. The scan is painless, but it can be uncomfortable to stay still.
Once you’re in the right position on the couch, the radiographer leaves the room. They can see you on a TV screen or through a window from the control room. You can talk to each other through an intercom.
The couch moves through the MRI scanner. It takes pictures as you move through it.
During the scan
The scanner makes a very loud clanging sound throughout the scan. You’ll wear earphones or headphones to protect your hearing. You can also listen to music. Keeping your eyes closed can help.
Your radiographer might ask you to hold your breath at times. Tell them if you are getting stiff and need to move.
This 1-minute video shows you what happens when you have an MRI scan.
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If you have cancer of the back passage (rectum) your doctor may do this test with an endo anal coil. This is a small magnetic coil that goes inside your back passage during the scan. It is uncomfortable but gives a very clear picture of the back passage (rectum). You can ask your doctor how long the coil needs to stay there.
After your scan
When the scan is over, your radiographer comes back into the room and lowers the couch so you can get up.
You might stay in the department for about 15 minutes so staff can make sure you’re okay. Your radiographer removes the tube from the vein in your arm.
You should then be able to go home or back to work and also eat and drink normally.
MRI is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having an MRI outweigh these possible risks.
Possible risks
An MRI is very safe and doesn’t use radiation. Some people can’t have an MRI but the checklist picks this up beforehand.
The contrast medium injection can cause side effects. But these are usually mild and last for a short time. They include:
★ Feeling or being sick
★ A skin rash
★ A headache
★ Dizziness
An allergic reaction to the contrast medium injection is rare. This most often starts with feeling weak, sweating and difficulty breathing. Tell your radiographer straight away if you feel unwell so they can give you medicine.
There is a risk that the contrast medium will leak outside the vein. This can cause swelling and pain in your arm, but it’s rare. Tell your radiographer if you have any swelling or pain. Let your GP know if it doesn’t get better or starts to get worse when you’re at home.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to create a picture of a part of the body. They can show up changes, including abnormal growths. You might have one to diagnose a cancer or find out if it has spread.
How you have it and what happens after it.
Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to create a picture of a part of the body. They can show up changes, including abnormal growths. You might have one to diagnose a cancer or find out if it has spread.
The ultrasound scanner has a microphone that gives off sound waves. The sound waves bounce off the organs inside your body and a microphone picks them up. The microphone links to a computer that turns the sound waves into a picture.
Ultrasound scans are completely painless. You usually have them in the hospital x-ray department.
Preparing for your ultrasound
You need to make sure you have opened your bowels beforehand so your rectum is empty when you go for your appointment.
What happens
You wear a hospital gown for the test. You may be given paper shorts with an opening at the back.
The doctor gently pushes an ultrasound probe inside your back passage (rectum) during the test. They use a cold lubricating gel to make this more comfortable.
The scan only takes a few minutes.
What happens afterwards
You can eat and drink normally after the test.
You can go straight home or back to work afterwards.
Getting your results
You usually get your results within a few weeks of your test. Your specialist will give them to you. Your GP may also receive a copy of the results.
Waiting for results can be an anxious time. It might be useful to talk to someone close to you.
Possible risks
Ultrasound of the back passage (rectum) is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having an ultrasound outweigh any possible risks.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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How you have it and what happens after it.
Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to create a picture of a part of the body. They can show up changes, including abnormal growths. You might have one to diagnose a cancer or find out if it has spread.
The ultrasound scanner has a microphone that gives off sound waves. The sound waves bounce off the organs inside your body and a microphone picks them up. The microphone links to a computer that turns the sound waves into a picture.
Ultrasound scans are completely painless. You usually have them in the hospital x-ray department.
Preparing for your ultrasound
There are no specific preparations for an ultrasound scan of your tummy (abdomen).
What happens
When you arrive at the clinic you might need to take off your upper clothing and put on a hospital gown. You'll lie on a couch for the test.
During the scan
The radiologist puts a cold lubricating gel over your tummy (abdomen). Then they put the handheld probe on your skin.
The gel helps the probe to move over your skin and makes sure it is always in contact with your skin.
You may feel a little pressure when the radiographer moves the probe over your tummy. Tell them if it is uncomfortable.
What happens afterwards
You can eat and drink normally after the test.
You can go straight home or back to work afterwards.
Getting your results
You usually get your results within a few weeks of your test. Your specialist will give them to you. Your GP may also receive a copy of the results.
Waiting for results can be an anxious time. It might be useful to talk to someone close to you.
Possible risks
Ultrasound of your tummy (abdomen) is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test. Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having an ultrasound of your tummy (abdomen) outweigh any possible risks.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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A chest X-ray is done to: Help find the cause of common symptoms such as a cough, shortness of breath, or chest pain. Find lung conditions-such as pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), collapsed lung (pneumothorax), or cystic fibrosis-and monitor treatment for these conditions.
How you have it and what happens after it.
X-ray use high energy rays to take pictures of the inside of your body. They can show if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
What happens
Before your X-ray
There is no special preparation for an x-ray. You can eat and drink normally beforehand. Take your medicines as normal.
When you arrive, the radiographer might ask you to change into a hospital gown and remove your jewellery.
During your X-ray
You usually have a chest x-ray standing up against the x-ray machine. If you can’t stand you can have it sitting or lying on the x-ray couch.
For other x-rays the best position is usually lying down on the x-ray couch. The radiographer lines the machine up to make sure it's in the right place. You must keep still but can breathe normally.
The radiographer then goes behind a screen to take the x-ray. They can still see and hear you. They may ask you to hold your breath for a few seconds while they take the x-ray.
X-rays are painless and quick. You won’t feel or see anything.
You usually have more than one x-ray taken from different angles. The whole process may take a few minutes.
After your X-ray
After the X-ray you can get dressed and go home or back to work straight away.
Getting your results
Ask your doctor how long it will be until you get your x-ray results. Unless your doctor thinks it’s urgent the results might take a couple of weeks.
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Waiting for test results can be a very worrying time. You might have contact details for a specialist nurse – you can ask them for information. It may help to talk to a close friend or relative about how you feel.
Possible risks
Many people worry about the possible effects of radiation. The amount you receive from an x-ray is small and doesn't make you feel unwell.
The risk of the radiation causing any problems in the future is very small. The benefits of finding out what is wrong outweigh any risk there may be from radiation.
Talk to your doctor if you are worried about the possible effects of X-ray.
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Screening means testing people for early stages of an illness before they have any symptoms. For screening to be useful the tests:
★ Must be reliable at picking up the illness
★ Must be simple and quick
★ Overall must do more good than harm to people taking part
Who has bowel screening
The screening programmes send a bowel cancer testing kit every 2 years to people eligible to take part. You need to be registered with a GP to receive your screening invitations.
There are separate bowel screening programmes for the different countries in the UK.
In England, men and women between the ages of 60 and 74 years take part.
People aged over 74, can request a screening kit by contacting the bowel cancer screening programme on 0800 707 6060.
The screening programme is also starting to invite people for a bowel scope test to look at the inside of the lower bowel and back passage (rectum). You have this test once, at age 55.
In Wales and Northern Ireland bowel screening with a bowel testing kit covers men and women aged 60 to 74 years old.
Bowel screening tests
Bowel cancer screening aims to detect cancer at an early stage when treatment is more likely to work. It can also help to prevent bowel cancer from developing in the first place.
There are 2 bowel cancer screening tests.
Testing for blood in your poo
Blood in your poo (stool or faeces) can be a sign of bowel cancer. You can test for tiny traces of blood that you might not be able to see. You do the test in your own home with a testing kit.
The kit is a simple way for you to collect small samples of your poo. You wipe the sample on a special card, which you then send for testing in a hygienically, sealed, prepaid envelope. There are detailed instructions with the kit.
You may think that the tests sound a bit embarassing, or unpleasant, but collecting the samples doesn't take long.
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Looking inside your bowel (bowel scope)
Bowel scope screening uses a thin flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end to look at the inside of your large bowel. It is also called Flexi scope or flexible sigmoidoscopy (flexi-sig).
The test looks for polyps. These are most likely to grow in the lower bowel. The polyps might develop into cancer if they grow. It can also find cancers if they have already developed and is likey to pick them up at an early stage.
A specially trained nurse or doctor puts the tube into your back passage and looks at the lower part of the large bowel. The nurse or doctor gently pumps some gas into the bowel to open it up so they can see more clearly. They usually remove the polyps they find straight away, using a thin wire loop passed through the scoping tube.
After bowel screening tests
About 2 weeks after your tests, you will get your results.
Normal results
Most people have normal results. This doesn't completely rule out cancer. So it is important to know your own body and what is normal for you. See your GP if you have changes that don't go away.
Unclear results This means there was a slight suggestion of blood in the sample. If this happens, the programme will send you another testing kit.
Abnormal results
Around 2 out of every 100 (2%) have an abnormal result.
Most people with an abnormal result do not have cancer. It can be caused by other medical conditions or recent dental work. Or if you've eaten a lot of red meat, turnips or horseradish in the 3 days before the test.
The screening programme may ask you to do the test again. Or you'll have an appointment to see a specialist nurse at a bowel cancer screening centre. The nurse will talk to you about having a test to look at the inside of your large bowel. This is called a colonoscopy.
After bowel scope screening
You'll get the results within 2 weeks.
Most people will have a normal result.
Some people have polyps. The nurse or doctor will usually remove these and send them to a laboratory to be checked. You'll also have a colonoscopy to check the rest of your large bowel.
Around 1 out of 300 people who having bowel scope screening have cancer. The screening centre will let your GP know, who will refer you to a specialist for treatment.
Risks of bowel cancer screening
Bowel cancer screening works well in finding cancer early but it is not perfect.
False positive result
This means that the tests pick up something even though the person doesn't have cancer. This can cause anxiety and lead to further tests.
False negative result
Rarely, screening tests miss a cancer. It is important to know the symptoms of bowel cancer and see your GP if you have any symptoms.
Overdiagnosis
There is a small chance that some people may be diagnosed and treated for bowel growths that would not have caused any harm.
Damage to the bowel wall
Bowel scope screening is usually very safe, but in rare cases it can damage the bowel wall. Around 1 in 3,000 people have serious bleeding. Or the bowel wall may be torn, but this is even rarer. If this happens, you need surgery straight away to repair the bowel.
Screening for people at higher risk
Bowel screening works well at reducing deaths from bowel cancer in people in their 50s, 60s and early 70s. As bowel cancer is rare in younger people, screening them is not useful.
Some people can have regular screening at an earlier age, if they have certain conditions that increase their risk of bowel cancer.
These include:
★ Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
★ Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), also called Lynch syndrome
★ A strong family history of bowel cancer
★ Ulcerative colitis
★ Crohn's disease
★ Bowel polyps
★ A previous bowel cancer
Read about screening people at higher risk
Be Clear On Cancer
Be Clear On Cancer bowel screening campaign aims to encourage people to do the bowel screening test.
Find out more about Be Clear On Cancer
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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Survival by stage
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Survival depends on many different factors. It depends on your individual condition, type of cancer, treatment and level of fitness. So no one can tell you exactly how long you will live.
These are general statistics based on large groups of patients. Remember, they can’t tell you what will happen in your individual case.
Your doctor can give you more information about your own outlook (prognosis).
Survival by stage
Stage 1
95 out of 100 men (95%) with stage 1 bowel cancer (also called Dukes' A) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
Around all women (100%) with stage 1 bowel cancer (also called Dukes' A) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
Stage 2
More than 80 out of 100 men (more than 80%) with stage 2 bowel cancer (also called Dukes' B) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
Almost 90 out of 100 women (almost 90%) with stage 2 bowel cancer (also called Dukes' B) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
Stage 3
Almost 65 out of 100 men and women (almost 65%) with stage 3 bowel cancer (also called Dukes' C) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
Stage 4
More than 5 out of 100 men (more than 5%) with stage 4 bowel cancer (also called Dukes' D) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
Almost 10 out of 100 women (almost 10%) with stage 4 bowel cancer (also called Dukes' D) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
If the cancer has spread into the liver and it can be removed with surgery, around 25 to 40 people (25 to 40%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they're diagnosed.
Survival for all stages of bowel cancer
Bowel cancer
Generally for people with bowel cancer in England and Wales:
★ Around 75 out of 100 people (around 75%) survive their cancer for 1 year or more
★ Around 60 out of 100 people (around 60%) survive their cancer for 5 years or more
★ Almost 60 out of 100 people (almost 60%) survive their cancer for 10 years or more
Rectal cancer
Generally for people with rectal cancer in England and Wales: ★ Around 80 out of 100 people (around 80%) survive their cancer for 1 year or more
★ 60 out of 100 people (around 60%) survive their cancer for 5 years or more
★ Almost 60 out of 100 people (almost 60%) survive their cancer for 10 years or more
What affects survival
Your outlook depends on the stage of the cancer when it was diagnosed. This means how big it is and whether it has spread.
The type of cancer and grade of the cancer cells can also affect your likely survival. Grade means how abnormal the cells look under the microscope.
Your general health and fitness also affect survival because overall, the fitter you are, the better you may be able to cope with your cancer and treatment.
Some bowel cancers make a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). People wth high CEA levels before treatment may have a worse outlook.
Bowel cancer can sometimes cause a blockage in the bowel (bowel obstruction). If this happens, you have a small risk of developing a hole in the wall of the bowel. This is called perforation. People with bowel cancer who have an obstruction or perforation of the bowel have a worse outlook.
About these statistics
The term 5 year survival doesn't mean you will only live for 5 years. It relates to the number of people who live 5 years or more after their diagnosis of cancer.
For more in-depth information about survival and bowel cancer,
go to our Cancer Statistics section
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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A different types of
Also check out Walnuts fight bowel cancer, heart disease and dementia.
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Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. You may also have immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy. Clinical trials might also be an option for you...read more
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Find out about how your doctor decides which treatment you need for early bowel cancer, the types of treatment you might have and treatment by stage.
Advances in Treatment Decision Making for Patients with Early-Stage Colon Cancer. A growing collection of tests are available to describe the important characteristics of a tumor and guide treatment choices and Dr. Hochster discusses how these test impact treatment-decision making in early-stage colon cancer.
Find out about treatment decisions for advanced bowel cancer
Deciding which treatment you need
A team of doctors and other professionals discuss the best treatment and care for you. They are called a multidisciplinary team (MDT).
The treatment you have depends on: ★ Where your cancer is
★ How far it has grown or spread (the stage)
★ The type of cancer
★ How abnormal the cells look under a microscope (the grade)
★ Your general health and level of fitness
Your doctor will discuss your treatment, its benefits and the possible side effects with you.
Treatment overview
The main treatments are:
Surgery
Chemotherapy
★ Radiotherapy
Surgery for early bowel cancer
Most people with early bowel cancer have surgery. You surgeon may be able to take out all of your cancer. For some people this might cure the cancer. This means their cancer never comes back.
Your doctor might suggest you also have chemotherapy or radiotherapy to stop the cancer coming back after surgery.
Chemotherapy for early bowel cancer
People with very early bowel cancer (stage 1) do not need chemotherapy after surgery.
Chemotherapy can be used for cancer in any part of the large bowel (colon) or back passage (rectum). It aims to kill any cells left behind after your operation. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy.
Your surgeon might suggest chemotherapy after surgery as part of a clinical trial if you have a stage 2 bowel cancer. You might be at higher risk of cancer coming back if cancer cells are found in lymph nodes or blood vessels near the bowel. Your doctor may offer chemotherapy if your cancer has grown into organs or structures next to the bowel.
Most people with stage 3 bowel cancer will have chemotherapy after surgery. You might have this as tablets or through a drip into your vein. You may have chemotherapy as part of a clinical trial.
Radiotherapy
Doctors don't often use radiotherapy to treat cancer in the large bowel (colon).
Radiotherapy is used to treat cancer of the back passage (rectum). You might have radiotherapy before sugery to shrink the cancer. This is called neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
You might also have radiotherapy to stop cancer of the back passage (rectum) coming back after surgery. This is called adjuvant radiotherapy.
Your doctor might suggest having radiotherapy and chemotherapy together. This is called chemoradiation.
Other treatments for early bowel cancer
Clinical trials are researching using biological therapies called monoclonal antibodies to treat early bowel cancer.
Monoclonal antibodies recognise and attach to specific proteins produced by cells. Each monoclonal antibody recognises one particular protein. They work in different ways depending on the protein they are targeting. So, some monoclonal antibodies might block particular proteins that encourage a cancer to grow and others might stop cancer cells from making their own blood supply.
Clinical trials to improve treatment
Your doctor might ask if you’d like to take part in a clinical trial. Doctors and researchers do trials to improve treatment by: ★ Making existing treatments better
★ Developing new treatments
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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People with very early bowel cancer (stage 1) do not need chemotherapy after surgery. Chemotherapy can be used for cancer in any part of the large bowel (colon) or back passage (rectum). It aims to kill any cells left behind after your operation. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy.
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Surgery for colon cancer
Find out about different types of surgery for cancer of the large bowel (the colon). The type of operation you have depends on the position of the cancer in the bowel.
Go to our information on surgery for colon cancer
Surgery for rectal cancer
Find out about different types of surgery for cancer of the back passage (rectal cancer).
Go to our information on surgery for rectal cancer
Preparing for surgery
You have an appointment at the pre assessment clinic 1 or 2 weeks before your operation. Find out what happens and the tests you might have.
Go to our information on preparing for surgery
Going into hospital
Find out about what you need to take in, what to expect and how to prepare to make it less stressful.
Go to our information on going into hospital
On the day of surgery
Find out what happens on the day of surgery, including about having an anaesthetic.
Go to our information on the day of surgery
Having a colostomy
Read about having a colostomy and find out what support is available to help you look after your stoma.
Go to our information on having a colostomy
Having an ileostomy
Read about having an ileostomy and find out what support is available to help you look after your stoma.
Go to our information on having an ileostomy
After surgery for bowel cancer
Find out how you'll feel after surgery, possible problems after surgery and your follow up appointments.
After surgery for bowel cancer
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org


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When, where and how you have chemotherapy for bowel cancer, and the possible side effects.
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Chemotherapy treatment
When, where and how you have chemotherapy for bowel cancer, and the possible side effects.
Go to our information on having Chemotherapy treatment
Chemotherapy drugs
Find out about the chemotherapy drugs used for early bowel cancer, the possible side effects and how to cope with them.
Go to our information on having chemotherapy drugs
Chemoradiotherapy
Find out about having chemotherapy and radiotherapy together for bowel cancer and how you have it.
Go to our information on having having chemotherapy and radiotherapy
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Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator... read more
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Radiation therapy, also known as radiotherapy, is a treatment used against cancer and, less commonly, thyroid disease, blood disorders and noncancerous growths.
It uses high-energy particles or waves, such as x-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, or protons, to destroy or damage cancer cells. Other names for radiation therapy are radiotherapy, irradiation, or x-ray therapy. Radiation can be given alone or used with other treatments, such as surgery or chemotherapy.
Radiotherapy uses high energy waves similar to x-rays to kill bowel cancer cells. You usually have radiotherapy to treat cancer that started in the back passage (rectum). It is not normally a treatment for cancer of the large bowel (colon).
Planning radiotherapy
Find out what happens at your planning appointment for external radiotherapy for cancer of the back passage (rectal cancer).
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Radiotherapy treatment
Find out about what happens when you have external radiotherapy for rectal cancer.
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Go to our information on having external radiotherapy for rectal cancer
Side effects of radiotherapy
Find out about the side effects of external radiotherapy for cancer of the back passage (rectal cancer) and how to cope with them.
Go to our information on side effects of radiotherapy
Internal radiotherapy for rectal cancer
Find out about what happens when you have radiotherapy from inside the back passage (rectum) and about possible side effects.
Go to our information on having internal radiotherapy for rectal cancer
Long term side effects of radiotherapy
Find out about the possible long term side effects of radiotherapy for rectal cancer and how to cope with them.
Go to our information on long term side effects of radiotherapy
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Find out about having chemotherapy and radiotherapy together for rectal cancer and about the side effects... read more
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Chemoradiotherapy (CRT, CRTx) is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer. Synonyms include radiochemotherapy (RCTx, RT-CT) and chemoradiation. Chemoradiation can be concurrent (together) or sequential (one after the other).
Chemoradiotherapy treatment
Find out about having chemotherapy and radiotherapy together for rectal cancer and how you have it.
Go to our information on having chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment
Side effects of chemoradiotherapy
Find out about the side effects of chemoradiotherapy for cancer of the back passage (rectal cancer) and how to cope with them.
Go to our information on ide effects of chemoradiotherapy
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Deciding about treatment can be difficult when you have advanced bowel cancer. Treatment can help to reduce symptoms, make you feel better and sometimes can help you to live longer. Find out about the different types of treatment you might have, when you might have them and about possible side effects.
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Advanced cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the body’s basic building blocks. It occurs when abnormal cells divide and multiply in an uncontrolled way. There are many types of cancer and each type develops differently. Some grow slowly, some advance rapidly, and others behave unpredictably. Some types of cancer respond well to treatment, while other types are more difficult to treat.
Advanced cancer is a term used to describe cancer that is unlikely to be cured. It may be primary or secondary cancer.
Living with advanced cancer
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Primary cancer refers to the first mass of cancer cells (tumour) in an organ or tissue. The tumour is confined to its original site, such as the bowel. This is called cancer in situ, carcinoma in situ or localised cancer.
If cancer cells from the primary site move through the body’s bloodstream or lymph vessels to a new site, they can multiply and form other malignant tumours (metastases). This is known as secondary or metastatic cancer. Secondary cancer keeps the name of the original, primary cancer. For example, bowel cancer that has spread to the liver is still called metastatic bowel cancer, even when the person has symptoms caused by cancer in the liver.
Although medical treatments may not be able to cure advanced cancer, some treatments may still be able to slow its growth or spread, sometimes for months or even years. Palliative care can also help manage cancer symptoms, which may include pain, and can reduce side effects from cancer treatments. At any stage of advanced cancer, a range of other palliative care services can enhance quality of life.
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Facts | Causes | Symptoms | Research
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Leukemia, also spelled Leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells. These white blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising problems, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections. These symptoms occur due to a lack of normal blood cells. Diagnosis is typically made by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy.
The exact cause of Leukemia is unknown. Different kinds of leukemia are believed to have different causes. Both inherited and environmental (non-inherited) factors are believed to be involved. Risk factors include smoking, ionizing radiation, some chemicals (such as benzene), prior chemotherapy, and Down syndrome. People with a family history of leukemia are also at higher risk.
There are four main types of leukemia/白血病:
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)/急性骨髓性白血病
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)/慢性淋巴细胞性白血病
Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)/慢性骨髓性白血病
As well as a number of less common types. Leukemias and lymphomas both belong to a broader group of tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, known as tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
Article Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A different types of Leukaemia
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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病, also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), is an acute form of leukemia, or cancer of the white blood cells, characterized by the overproduction and accumulation of cancerous, immature white blood cells, known as lymphoblasts. In persons with ALL, lymphoblasts are overproduced in the bone marrow and continuously multiply, causing damage and death by inhibiting the production of normal cells (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the bone marrow and by spreading (infiltrating) to other organs. ALL is most common in childhood, with a peak incidence at 2–5 years of age and another peak in old age.
The Symptoms of ALL are indicative of a reduced production of functional blood cells, because leukemia wastes the resources of the bone marrow that are normally used to produce new, functioning blood cells. These symptoms can include fever, increased risk of infection (especially bacterial infections like pneumonia, due to neutropenia; symptoms of such an infection include shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, vomiting), increased tendency to bleed (due to thrombocytopenia), and signs indicative of anemia, including pallor, tachycardia (high heart rate), fatigue, and headache.
Bone marrow smear from a patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病.
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About 6,000 cases are reported in the United States every year. Internationally, ALL is more common in Caucasians than in Africans; it is more common in Hispanics and in Latin America. Cure is a realistic goal and is achieved in more than 80% of affected children, although only 20-40% of adults are cured. "Acute" is defined by the World Health organization standards, in which greater than 20% of the cells in the bone marrow are blasts. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is defined as having less than 20% blasts in the bone marrow.
ALL was one of the first cancers for which an effective chemotherapeutic treatment was developed. Antifolates like aminopterin and methotrexate were developed in the late 1940s by Sidney Farber and Yellapragada Subbarow. At that time, a doctor did not need a patient's or parent's consent to try an experimental treatment as the Nuremberg code had not yet been signed. Desperate to save his patients, Farber initially tried folic acid supplementation as a treatment for ALL... read more
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A different types of Leukaemia
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Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)/急性骨髓性白血病 is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that build up in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. Although AML is a relatively rare disease, accounting for roughly 1.2% of cancer deaths in the United States, its incidence is expected to increase as the population ages.
The symptoms of AML are caused by replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemic cells, which causes a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. These symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and increased risk of infection. Several risk factors and chromosomal abnormalities have been identified, but the specific cause is not clear. As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.
AML has several subtypes; treatment and prognosis vary among subtypes. AML is cured in 35–40% of people under 60 years old and 5–15% over 60 years old. Older people who are not able to withstand intensive chemotherapy have an average survival of 5–10 months.
AML is treated initially with chemotherapy aimed at inducing remission; people may go on to receive additional chemotherapy or a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Recent research into the genetics of AML has resulted in the availability of tests that can predict which drug or drugs may work best for a particular person, as well as how long that person is likely to survive. The treatment and prognosis of AML differ from those of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in part because the cellular differentiation is not the same; AML involves higher percentages of dedifferentiated and undifferentiated cells, including more blasts (myeloblasts, monoblasts, and megakaryoblasts)...read more
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B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL), also known as Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)/慢性淋巴细胞性白血病, is the most common type of leukemia (a type of cancer of the white blood cells) in adults.[1] CLL affects B cell lymphocytes, which originate in the bone marrow, develop in the lymph nodes, and normally fight infection by producing antibodies.
In CLL, B cells grow in an uncontrolled manner and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. CLL is a stage of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), a type of B-cell lymphoma, which presents primarily in the lymph nodes.[2][dubious – discuss] CLL and SLL are considered the same underlying disease, just with different appearances.
CLL is a disease of the elderly; however, in rare cases, it can occur in teenagers and occasionally in children. Some of these may relate to an inherited predisposition.[citation needed] CLL is more common in men than women, with 63% of new cases occurring in men (UK, 2014).
Most people are diagnosed without symptoms as the result of a routine blood test that shows a high white blood cell count. As it advances, CLL results in swollen lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, and eventually anemia and infections. Early CLL is not treated, and late CLL is treated with chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies.
DNA analysis has distinguished two major types of CLL, with different survival times. People with CLL that is positive for the marker ZAP-70 have an average survival of 8 years, while those negative for ZAP-70 have an average survival of more than 25 years.[citation needed] Many patients, especially older ones with slowly progressing disease, can be reassured and may not need any treatment in their lifetimes...read more
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Chronic Myelogenous (or Myeloid or Myelocytic) Leukemia (CML), also known as Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia (CGL), is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and their precursors is found. It is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is now largely treated with targeted drugs called tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which have led to dramatically improved long-term survival rates since the introduction of the first such agent in 2001. These drugs have revolutionized treatment of this disease and allow most patients to have a good quality of life when compared to the former chemotherapy drugs. In Western countries, CML accounts for 15–25% of all adult leukemias and 14% of leukemias overall (including the pediatric population, where CML is less common)...read more
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Some Leukaemias seem to be a mixture of AML and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The abnormal cells have particular proteins called markers for both ALL and AML.
Doctors call these acute biphenotypic leukaemias. Biphenotypic (bye-fee-no-tip-ik) means both types and is extremely rare.
Your treatment will depend on:
1. What your leukaemia cells look like down the microscope
2. Your general health and your age
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) is a type of blood cancer that starts from young white blood cells called lymphocytes in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the soft inner part of the bones, where new blood cells are made. It usually develops quickly over days or weeks. It is the most common type of leukaemia to affect children but can also affect adults.
Chemotherapy is the main treatment, you might also have a bone marrow or stem cell transplant.
How common it is:
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病 is rare. In the UK around 760 people are diagnosed each year with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病.
Who gets it:
ALL is most often diagnosed in children, teenagers and young adults. The age group with the highest incidence is young children aged 0 - 4.
When combining all ages more than half (53%) of cases are diagnosed in people aged 10 and over each year.
Find out about Risks and Causes of ALL
What happens in ALL:
The word acute means that the leukaemia can develop fairly quickly. The bone marrow produces white blood cells called lymphocytes too quickly because they grow and divide too fast. These abnormal cells build up in the blood.
The leukaemic cells can eventually spread into other parts of the body, including the:
★ Lymph nodes
★ Liver
★ Spleen
★ Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
★ Testicles
The cells can build up in the lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen and cause swelling.
If it wasn't treated the leukaemia would cause death within a few weeks or months. But treatments work very well for most people with ALL.
Blood cells and ALL:
To understand how and why leukaemia affects you as it does, it helps to know how you make blood cells.
Your body makes blood cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the soft inner part of your bones. You make blood cells in a controlled way, as your body needs them.
All blood cells start as the same type of cell, called a stem cell. This stem cell then develops into:
Myeloid stem cells which become white blood cells called monocytes and neutrophils (a type of granulocyte)
Lymphoid stem cells which become white blood cells called lymphocytes
Erythroblasts which become red blood cells
Megakaryocytes which become platelets
The diagram helps explain this:
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In Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病, the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are not fully developed and are not able to work normally.
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Types of leukaemia:
There are several types and subtypes of leukaemia. The name of the leukaemia you have depends on how quickly it develops and the type of white blood cells it affects.
Doctors divide leukaemia into two main groups, acute and chronic. Acute leukaemia develops very quickly. Chronic leukaemia tends to develop slowly, usually over months or years without causing many symptoms.
Doctors divide these groups further, depending on the type of white blood cell they affect.
In acute leukaemia:
★ Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) affects Myeloid cells
★ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) affects Lymphoid cells
In Chronic Leukaemia:
★ Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) affects Myeloid cells
★ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) affects Lymphoid cells
HOW LEUKAEMIA AFFECTS YOU
White blood cells help fight infection. But if your body makes abnormal white blood cells, they don’t work properly. So you are more likely to get infections and find it difficult to get rid of them.
Too many white blood cells can overcrowd the bone marrow. So, there isn't enough space for other types of blood cells. Then you might have a lower than normal number of red blood cells and platelets.
Having too few red blood cells makes you tired and breathless (anaemic). And if you don’t have enough platelets, you can have bleeding problems, for example, nosebleeds.
Abnormal white blood cells can build up in parts of the lymphatic system, such as the spleen and lymph nodes, making them swell. They might build up in the liver. This can make your tummy (abdomen) swell and feel uncomfortable. The leukaemia cells can also spread to the brain, and the testicles in men.
Find more information on Possible Symptoms of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)
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Did You Know… that beet juice is an astonishingly effective treatment for leukemia and other cancers?
The beautiful crimson color of the beet comes from betacyanins, natural compounds that also happen to be extremely powerful cancer-fighting agents. Beets also contain an amino acid called betaine, packed with anti-cancer properties and unique phytochemicals called betalains.
All of these nutrients are key to the incredible health properties of the beet. Betanin, one of the most researched betalains found in beets, has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and detoxifying effects.
According to The World’s Healthiest Foods (a website run by the not-for-profit George Mateljan Foundation, devoted to fostering a healthier world), recent lab studies found that betanin pigments can impede tumor cell growth in tissues throughout the body, including the...
★ Stomach
★ Nerves
★ Lungs
★ Breasts
★ Prostate
★ Testicles
These findings provide a compelling case for further research into the value of betanins and other betalains in preventing and curing cancer.
Because beets contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules, it is statistically likely that they can reduce the risk of many kinds of cancers. With the high antioxidant content, beets are a great leukemia natural treatment. The World’s Healthiest Foods says, “Eventually, we expect to see large-scale human studies that show the [cancer] risk-reducing effect of dietary beet intake.”
A solid scientific basis for that work already exists. In the 1950s, a Hungarian cancer therapist named Alexander Ferenczi began putting his patients on a regime of raw or juiced beetroots in addition to their normal diet. He worked exclusively with patients who had already undergone chemotherapy and radiation, and who were primarily in the final (cachexic) stage of cancer.
All of Ferenczi’s patients responded positively to the addition of beets to their diets. There was a clear, clinical improvement in each and every one of their cancers. The beet treatment proved to be so powerful, in fact, that in some cases patients actually overdosed on beets!
In some cases, the mass injection of nutrients — especially vitamin C — contained in the beets overloaded the patients’ livers.
Beets are a more effective cancer treatment when begun early. In fact, the regular consumption of beets might be most effective as a preventative treatment.
To avoid overwhelming your body’s waste disposal system, start with small quantities of beetroot and gradually increase. If you start to feel unwell, reduce your consumption.
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The results of a later study of “red beet therapy” — the consumption of approximately 2 lbs of raw, mashed beets daily — corroborate Ferenczi’s findings and suggest that beets can help your body fight against leukemia and tumors.
While eating mass quantities of mashed beets may not be the most appealing option, it may be possible to get similar results in a more digestible format. In one clinical trial, 22 patients with advanced inoperable cancers were given 10 oz. of beet juice daily for 3 to 4 months.
All but one of those patients showed marked improvements in health. Surely that’s enough to make anyone regard beets in a whole new light.
It seems clear that beets are indeed a mighty health resource. They are high in folate — a compound necessary for bone health — and not only have they been shown to be a potent anti-cancer treatment, but they also detoxify the liver, kidneys, gallbladder, blood and lymph. Beets are also helpful for relieving constipation.
Beet juice is such a strong substance that it should not be consumed on its own. Rather, mix it into another milder juice such as carrot, cucumber or apple. Dana Herbert, a natural health blogger, offers this advice to those interested in making beet juice from scratch:
“When juicing beets, alternate between pieces of beets and pieces of carrots, otherwise the beet pulp tends to build up on the sides of the spinning extraction basket and causes the juicer to vibrate.”
The health-promoting pigments in beets can stain your skin, so it might be best to wear gloves while preparing them. If your hands do get stained, try lemon juice as a quick and nicely scented way to clean them!
Heat diminishes the concentration of phytochemicals in beets, so if you choose to cook them, World’s Healthiest Foods recommends steaming them lightly for 15 minutes, which will maximize their nutrition and flavor.
Using Vegetables for Cancer Therapy – Beetroot Fights Disease and Even Cures Cancer...read more
Beets Don’t Just Fight Disease…They Promote Health
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Find out about the possible symptoms of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) and when to see your doctor.
Many symptoms of ALL are vague and non specific. You may feel as if you have flu. These symptoms are caused by too many abnormal white blood cells and not enough normal white cells, red cells and platelets.
Most people with one or more of these symptoms don't have leukaemia. But it's important to get any symptoms checked out by your GP.

General Weakness
You might feel weaker than normal.
Feeling Tired (fatigue)
You might feel more tired than normal, even if you are getting a good nights sleep.
A High Temperature (Fever)
You might have a high temperature or feel feverish.
Frequent Infections
You might pick up infections such as coughs and colds easily. Or you might find that the infections last a long time and are difficult to shake off. This is because you don’t have enough healthy white blood cells to fight bacteria or viruses.
Bruising or Bleeding Easily
You might have:
★ Nosebleeds
★ Bleeding gums when you clean your teeth
★ Very heavy periods
★ Small dark red spots on your skin
★ Blood in your urine or poo
You might find you are bruising more easily than normal.
You may get abnormal bruising and bleeding because you do not have enough platelets.
Weight Loss
You might be losing weight even if you have not changed your diet.
Pain in your Bones or Joints
You might feel pain in your bones or joints. This might be a dull ache or more of a stabbing pain. It might be worse at different times of the day.
Too many abnormal white blood cells collecting in the bones, joints or lymph glands may cause pain and swelling.
Breathlessness
You might notice that you’re feeling breathless more than usual or for a lot of the time. You might feel out of breath after your normal day to day activities or from climbing a short flight of stairs.
You may feel breathless and tired because you do not have enough red blood cells.
Swollen Lymph Glands
Your lymph nodes might feel swollen when you touch them. You have lymph nodes in lots of places in your body. They might feel swollen in:
★ Your Neck
★ Under your Armpit
★ In your Groin
Feeling Full in your Tummy (Abdomen)
You might have a feeling of fullness or discomfort in your tummy (abdomen). This can happen if your liver or spleen are swollen.
Pale Skin
You might look paler or more 'washed out' than normal.
When to see your doctor
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A type of leukaemia called T-Cell ALL can cause swollen lymph glands in the centre of your chest. It might make the thymus gland in your upper chest swell. The swollen glands or thymus gland may press on the windpipe, causing breathlessness and coughing. They can also press on the veins carrying blood from the head.
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This causes pressure in the blood vessels and makes the face, neck and arms swell and go red. This is called superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO)...read more
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T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病 is a type of cancer which affects the blood and the bone marrow. This form of cancer can develop at any age, although it is most commonly found among children. Symptoms of are varied and may include weakness, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, or weight loss. Treatment usually involves the use of either chemotherapy or radiation therapy, although in more advances cases of this disease, these treatment options may be used in conjunction with one another.
The bone marrow is responsible for producing healthy white blood cells, designed to help the body fight infection. In T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病, these white blood cells are abnormal and do not mature properly, making them ineffective at fighting infection. As these malignant cells continue to reproduce and spread, they crowd out healthy blood cells, leading to this potentially fatal form of blood cancer. The prognosis is much better when this disease is diagnosed in the early stages, although treatment is often successful in advanced stages as well.
The first noticeable symptoms of T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病 are often extreme fatigue and weakness. Routine blood tests may show a low red blood cell count, a condition known as anemia. Loss of appetite and unintentional weight loss frequently occur when this disease is present. The lymph nodes, liver, or spleen are often swollen, leading doctors to consider the possibility of cancer. The patient may develop frequent infections throughout the body due to a lack of healthy white blood cells.
T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病 is a rapidly-moving type of cancer, so treatment is typically started immediately after diagnosis. Chemotherapy is a standard type of treatment for this disease. This involves the use of specialized drugs which contain strong chemicals designed to destroy cancer cells and slow the progression of the disease. Chemotherapy may cause significant side effects such as hair loss, nausea, and vomiting. Additional medications are often given during treatment to combat extreme cases of nausea and vomiting.
Radiation therapy involves the use of high levels of energy to destroy cancer cells and is another commonly used form of treatment for T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病. Symptoms of radiation therapy are similar to those caused by chemotherapy treatment. In advanced cases of this form of cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be used at the same time, or one treatment method may be used first with the other being used following completion of the first type of treatment...read more
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You may be surprised to find that leukemia isnt just one type of cancer but actually a category of multiple cancers that affect our blood cells. Both children and adults can be diagnosed with these cancers, which cause our bone marrow to produce abnormal white blood cells.
White blood cells help fight infection. But if your body makes abnormal white blood cells, they don’t work properly. So you are more likely to get infections and find it difficult to get rid of them.
Too many white blood cells can overcrowd the bone marrow. So, there isn't enough space for other types of blood cells. Then you might have a lower than normal number of red blood cells and platelets.
Having too few red blood cells makes you tired and breathless (anaemic). And if you don’t have enough platelets, you can have bleeding problems, for example, nosebleeds.
Abnormal white blood cells can build up in parts of the lymphatic system, such as the spleen and lymph nodes, making them swell. They might build up in the liver. This can make your tummy (abdomen) swell and feel uncomfortable. The leukaemia cells can also spread to the brain, and the testicles in men...read more
Article Source: www.cancerresearchuk.org

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We don’t know what causes most cases of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)/急性淋巴细胞白血病. But there are some factors that may increase your risk of developing